International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrop, L.P.
1982-02-01
Failure rates for non-nuclear pressure vessel populations are often regarded as showing a decrease with time. Empirical evidence can be cited which supports this view. On the other hand theoretical predictions of PWR type reactor pressure vessel failure rates have shown an increasing failure rate with time. It is shown that these two situations are not necessarily incompatible. If adjustments are made to the input data of the theoretical model to treat a non-nuclear pressure vessel population, the model can produce a failure rate which decreases with time. These adjustments are explained and the results obtained are shown. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perali, A.; Pieri, P.; Strinati, G.C.
2004-01-01
Theoretical predictions for the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover of trapped Fermi atoms are compared with recent experimental results for the density profiles of L 6 i. The calculations rest on a single theoretical approach that includes pairing fluctuations beyond mean-field. Excellent agreement with experimental results is obtained. Theoretical predictions for the zero-temperature chemical potential and gap at the unitarity limit are also found to compare extremely well with Quantum Monte Carlo simulations and with recent experimental results
Chelate forms of biometalls. Theoretical aspects of obtaining and characteristics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Kapustyan
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The problem of microelements bioavailability is highlighted and the correct ways of its solution are substantiated as a result of generalization of theoretical aspects of obtaining of the biometals chelate forms. The characteristics of the main biogenic elements, their physiological significance, electrochemical properties are presented. The main examples of the participation of biometals in various biological processes are given. The properties and the structure peculiarities of biometals coordination complexes are considered in detail. It is shown that in obtaining of biometals chelate forms, there is the mutual selectivity and the affinity of biometals and ligands. The main factors of obtaining a hard metal complex are given. Potential bioligands for obtaining bioavailable forms of microelements are detailed. Among them there are amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates. The possible character of complexation depending on the nature of the bioligand is indicated. Practical examples of preparation of biometals mixed ligand complexes are given. The expediency of using metabolic products and processing of lactic acid bacteria as promising components of mixed ligand chelate complexes is substantiated. These substances contain in their composition a mass of potential donor atoms that are capable to form covalent and coordination bonds with biomethalles, and also possess high biological and immunotropic activities. The use of this system in the biocoordination compounds of the "metals of life" can provide a synergistic effect of the components, significantly to expand the range of their physiological activity and to increase the degree of assimilation by the body.
Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.; Nasirov, A. K.; Anastasi, A.; Curciarello, F.; Fazio, G.
2018-02-01
Experimental and theoretical results of the PCN fusion probability of reactants in the entrance channel and the Wsur survival probability against fission at deexcitation of the compound nucleus formed in heavy-ion collisions are discussed. The theoretical results for a set of nuclear reactions leading to formation of compound nuclei (CNs) with the charge number Z = 102- 122 reveal a strong sensitivity of PCN to the characteristics of colliding nuclei in the entrance channel, dynamics of the reaction mechanism, and excitation energy of the system. We discuss the validity of assumptions and procedures for analysis of experimental data, and also the limits of validity of theoretical results obtained by the use of phenomenological models. The comparison of results obtained in many investigated reactions reveals serious limits of validity of the data analysis and calculation procedures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouly, J.C.; Caizergues, R.; Deilgat, E.; Houelle, M.; Lecorche, P.
1967-01-01
This report groups together a series of experimental and theoretical studies on cylinders and plates of solution tried out at the Valduc Centre. a) Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results obtained on critical heights of solutions. b) Study of the effect of nitrogen, introduced in the form of the ion NO 3- , on the reactivity of fissile media. c) Study of the effect of 240 94 Pu on the reactivity of these media. d) Study of the influence of the dimensions of the inner cavity of annular cylinders, as well as of the influence of the moderator which may be introduced. Simple results were obtained which were easy to apply. An extrapolation to other geometries is made. (authors) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kravchenko, E.I.; Sabaeva, E.V.
2017-01-01
This brief review presents the topmost scientific results obtained in 2016 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in such fields as theoretical and experimental physics, radiation and radiobiological research, accelerators, information technology and computer physics. It also provides information about the publications by JINR staff members and activities carried out at the JINR University Centre in 2016. [ru
Campos, Maria da Graça R.; Matos, Miguel Pires
2010-01-01
The increase of human life span will have profound implications in Public Health in decades to come. By 2030, there will be an estimated 1.2 billion women in post-menopause. Hormone Replacement Therapy with synthetic hormones is still full of risks and according to the latest developments, should be used for the shortest time possible. Searching for alternative drugs is inevitable in this scenario and science must provide physicians with other substances that can be used to treat the same symptoms with less side effects. Systematic research carried out on this field of study is focusing now on isoflavones but the randomised controlled trials and reviews of meta-analysis concerning post-menopause therapy, that could have an important impact on human health, are very controversial. The aim of the present work was to establish a theoretical calculation suitable for use as a way to estimate the “Theoretical Efficacy (TE)” of a mixture with different bioactive compounds as a way to obtain a “Theoretical Efficacy Related to Estradiol (TERE)”. The theoretical calculation that we propose in this paper integrates different knowledge about this subject and sets methodological boundaries that can be used to analyse already published data. The outcome should set some consensus for new clinical trials using isoflavones (isolated or included in mixtures) that will be evaluated to assess their therapeutically activity. This theoretical method for evaluation of a possible efficacy could probably also be applied to other herbal drug extracts when a synergistic or contradictory bio-effect is not verified. In this way, it we may contribute to enlighten and to the development of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:20386649
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabaeva, E.V.; Krupko, E.I.
2016-01-01
This brief review presents the topmost scientific results obtained in 2015 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in such fields as theoretical and experimental physics, radiation and radiobiological research, accelerators, information technology and computer physics. It also provides information about the publications by JINR staff members, awards given to JINR scientists, and activities carried out at the JINR University Centre in 2015. [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabaeva, E.V.; Kravchenko, E.I.
2014-01-01
This brief review presents the topmost scientific results obtained in 2013 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in such areas as theoretical physics, experimental physics, radiation and radiobiological research, accelerators, information technology and computer physics. It also provides information on the number of publications by JINR staff members, awards given to JINR scientists, and activities carried out at the JINR University Centre in 2013.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulatova, V.V.; Sabaeva, E.V.
2015-01-01
This brief review presents the topmost scientific results obtained in 2014 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in such fields as theoretical and experimental physics, radiation and radiobiological research, accelerators, information technology and computer physics. It also provides information about the publications by JINR staff members, patents for inventions, awards given to JINR scientists, and activities carried out at the JINR University Centre in 2014. [ru
Experimental results obtained at GANIL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borrel, V.
1993-01-01
A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs
Sibutramine characterization and solubility, a theoretical study
Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Penieres Carrillo, Guillermo; Arroyo Razo, Gabriel; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René
2013-04-01
Solubility data from sibutramine (SBA) in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Sibutramine was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction technique. Solubility data were obtained by the saturation method. The van't Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility values and the ideal solvent activity coefficient. No polymorphic phenomena were found from the X-ray diffraction analysis, even though this compound is a racemic mixture of (+) and (-) enantiomers. Theoretical calculations showed that the polarisable continuum model was able to reproduce the solubility and stability of sibutramine molecule in gas phase, water and a family of alcohols at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. Dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in water values as physical parameters were used in those theoretical calculations for explaining that behavior. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and good agreement was obtained. Sibutramine solubility increased from methanol to 1-octanol in theoretical and experimental results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capobianco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Centore, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica P. Corradini, Università di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Noce, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Peluso, A., E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2013-01-16
Highlights: ► Electro-optical determined and MP2/DFT computed NLO properties have been compared. ► Significant dependence of dipole moments of elongated NLO chromophores on conformations has been found. ► A thorough comparison between MP2 and DFT/TD-DFT computational approaches has been carried out. ► The two-state model overestimates hyperpolarizability. - Abstract: Electric dipole moments and static first order hyperpolarizabilities of two push–pull molecules with an extended π electron systems have been evaluated at different computational levels and compared with the results of electro-optical absorption measurements, based on the two state model. Calculations show that: (i) the dipole moments of such elongated systems depend significantly on conformation, a thorough conformational search is necessary for a meaningful comparison between theoretical and experimental results; (ii) DFT methods, in particular CAM-B3LYP and M05-2X, yield dipole moments which compare well with those obtained by post Hartree–Fock methods (MP2) and by EOA measurements; (iii) theoretical first order hyperpolarizabilities are largely underestimated, both by MP2 and DFT methods, possibly because of the failure of two state model used in electro-optical measurements.
Electron-impact ionization of atomic ions: Theoretical results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loch, S D; Burgos, J M Munoz; Ballance, C P; Ludlow, J; Lee, T-G; Fogle, M; Pindzola, M S [Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Griffin, D C [Rollins College, Winter Park, FL 32789 (United States); Yumak, A; Yavuz, I; Altun, Z, E-mail: loch@physics.auburn.ed [Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey)
2009-11-15
A brief overview is given of theoretical results for electron-impact ionization of atoms and ions. A description is given of the main theoretical methods, along with the databases where the data are archived. It is shown that for light species, ground and metastable ionization cross sections are in reasonable agreement with experiment when non-perturbative data are used for the near neutrals and distorted wave data are used for ions greater than a few times ionized. Some discrepancies between theory and experiment still remain for systems with open d and open p subshells. The sensitivity of ionization rate coefficients to the near threshold part of the ionization cross section is shown. The role of excited states in effective ionization rate coefficients is demonstrated and recent excited state ionization cross section results for H, He, He{sup +}, B{sup 2+} and Ne are presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard; Santos, Ilmar
2013-01-01
direction. The modification of the injection pressure enables to modify the bearing static and dynamic properties according to the operational needs. The results presented are obtained using a theoretical model, which considers all the effects that determine the bearing behavior (controllable......This paper is aimed at presenting results regarding the static and thermal behavior of a tilting-pad journal bearing operating under controllable regime. The bearing is rendered controllable by injecting high pressure oil into the clearance using holes drilled across the bearing pads in the radial...... elastothermohydrodynamic lubrication regime), as well as using a test rig designed and built to this effect. The comparison between experimental and theoretical results provides solid ground to determine the accuracy of the available model for the the prediction of the steady-state behavior of the tilting-pad bearing...
Equitable Coloring of Graphs. Recent Theoretical Results and New Practical Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Furmańczyk Hanna
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In many applications in sequencing and scheduling it is desirable to have an underlaying graph as equitably colored as possible. In this paper we survey recent theoretical results concerning conditions for equitable colorability of some graphs and recent theoretical results concerning the complexity of equitable coloring problem. Next, since the general coloring problem is strongly NP-hard, we report on practical experiments with some efficient polynomial-time algorithms for approximate equitable coloring of general graphs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, R.C.
1979-01-01
Nowadays the 'experimental' charge densities are produced with convincing error estimates due to new methods and techniques. In addition the accuracy of those experiments means that r.m.s. radii are known within a few hundredths of a fermi. Because of that accuracy the theorists are left far behind. In order to show which theoretical possiblities exist at the moment we will discuss the single particle shell model and the Hartree-Fock or mean field approximation. Corrections to the mean field approximation are described. Finally, some examples and conclusions are presented. (KBE)
Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu
2016-12-01
We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theoretical galactic cosmic ray electron spectrum obtained for sources of varying geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, M.E.
1969-01-01
Jokipii and Meyer have recently obtained an electron density energy spectrum of the cosmic rays, originating in the Galaxy, using integral solutions of the steady state transfer equations, by considering a circular cylindric galactic disc as source and approximating the resulting fourth order integral. In this report, we present general results, obtained by using an arbitrary circular cylindric source, without restricting ourselves to the galactic disc. The integrals are treated exactly. The conclusions of Jokipii and Meyer form special cases of these results. We also obtain an exponential energy variation which, at the moment, is not observed experimentally. The second part of this work deals with more complicated, but perhaps more realistic models of elliptic cylindric and ellipsoidal galactic disc sources. One may also note that a very large source concentrated in a very small region gives a spectrum not unlike that for a small source distributed throughout a large volume. Finally, it may be remarked that the model adopted is much less restrictive than the artificial conception of 'leakage time' followed by other workers. (author) [fr
Department of Theoretical Physics. Annual report 1991
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
The research done at the Department of Theoretical Physics of the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics concerns various theoretical problems of low, medium and high energy nuclear physics, elementary particle physics, astrophysics, general physics and mathematical physics. Both formal problems as well as more phenomenologically oriented ones are being considered. The details of the results obtained in various fields are summarised in the presented abstracts. (author)
Scheduling results applicable to decision-theoretic troubleshooting
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lín, Václav
2015-01-01
Roč. 57, č. 1 (2015), s. 87-107 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Decision-theoretic troubleshooting * Single machine scheduling with weighted flowtime * Algorithms * Computational complexity Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.696, year: 2015
Test Beam Results Obtained with the Q4 Prototype
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; Daniel, M.; Fouz, M. c.; Marin, J.; Mocholi, J.; Oller, J. C.; Puerta, J.; Romero, L.; Salicio, J. M.
2000-07-01
A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built at CIEMAT using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. (Author)
Test beam results obtained with the Q4 prototype
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; Daniel, M.; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Mocholi, J.; Oller, J. C.; Puerta, J.; Romero, L.; Salicio, J. M.; Willmott, C.
2000-10-01
A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built at CIEMAT using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. (Author)
Theoretical analysis of polarized structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altarelli, G.; ); Ball, R.D.; Forte, S.; Ridolfi, G.
1998-01-01
We review the analysis of polarized structure function data using perturbative QCD and NLO We use the most recent experimental data to obtain updated results for polarized parton distributions, first moments and the strong coupling. We also discuss several theoretical issues involving in this analysis and in the interpretation of its results. Finally, we compare our results with other similar analyses in the recent literature. (author)
Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S
2013-04-01
This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.
Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwiecinski, J.
2002-01-01
Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and of relativistic heavy ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research yet the more formal problems are also considered. The detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various fields is given in the abstracts. Our Department successfully collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular, members of our Department participate in the EC network which allows for the mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department have also participated in the research projects funded by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and undergraduate teaching activity both at our Institute and at other academic institutions in Cracow. At present, eight students are working towards their Ph.D. degrees under the supervision of senior members of the Department. (author)
Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwiecinski, J.
2001-01-01
Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research yet more formal problems are also considered. A detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various field is given in the abstracts. Our Department actively collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular, members of our Department participate in the EC network, which stimulates the mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department also participated in the research projects funded by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and up graduate teaching activity at our Institute as well as at other academic institution in Cracow. At present nine students are working on their Ph.D. degrees under the supervision of senior members of the Department. (author)
Theoretical Analysis of Polarized Structure Functions
Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G
1998-01-01
We review the analysis of polarized structure function data using perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order. We use the most recent experimental data to obtain updated results for polarized parton distributions, first moments and the strong coupling. We also discuss several theoretical issues involved in this analysis and in the interpretation of its results. Finally, we compare our results with other similar analyses in the recent literature.
Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions Theoretical overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul
2006-01-01
This is a short review of some theoretical aspects of the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. I review the main properties of the QCD phase diagram and recent developments in the physics of high gluon densities in the hadronic wavefunctions at high energy. Then I comment salient results obtained at RHIC
Information theoretic preattentive saliency
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loog, Marco
2011-01-01
Employing an information theoretic operational definition of bottom-up attention from the field of computational visual perception a very general expression for saliency is provided. As opposed to many of the current approaches to determining a saliency map there is no need for an explicit data...... of which features, image information is described. We illustrate our result by determining a few specific saliency maps based on particular choices of features. One of them makes the link with the mapping underlying well-known Harris interest points, which is a result recently obtained in isolation...
Theoretical and empirical convergence results for additive congruential random number generators
Wikramaratna, Roy S.
2010-03-01
Additive Congruential Random Number (ACORN) generators represent an approach to generating uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers that is straightforward to implement efficiently for arbitrarily large order and modulus; if it is implemented using integer arithmetic, it becomes possible to generate identical sequences on any machine. This paper briefly reviews existing results concerning ACORN generators and relevant theory concerning sequences that are well distributed mod 1 in k dimensions. It then demonstrates some new theoretical results for ACORN generators implemented in integer arithmetic with modulus M=2[mu] showing that they are a family of generators that converge (in a sense that is defined in the paper) to being well distributed mod 1 in k dimensions, as [mu]=log2M tends to infinity. By increasing k, it is possible to increase without limit the number of dimensions in which the resulting sequences approximate to well distributed. The paper concludes by applying the standard TestU01 test suite to ACORN generators for selected values of the modulus (between 260 and 2150), the order (between 4 and 30) and various odd seed values. On the basis of these and earlier results, it is recommended that an order of at least 9 be used together with an odd seed and modulus equal to 230p, for a small integer value of p. While a choice of p=2 should be adequate for most typical applications, increasing p to 3 or 4 gives a sequence that will consistently pass all the tests in the TestU01 test suite, giving additional confidence in more demanding applications. The results demonstrate that the ACORN generators are a reliable source of uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers, and that in practice (as suggested by the theoretical convergence results) the quality of the ACORN sequences increases with increasing modulus and order.
Systems theoretic analysis of the central dogma of molecular biology: some recent results.
Gao, Rui; Yu, Juanyi; Zhang, Mingjun; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Jr-Shin
2010-03-01
This paper extends our early study on a mathematical formulation of the central dogma of molecular biology, and focuses discussions on recent insights obtained by employing advanced systems theoretic analysis. The goal of this paper is to mathematically represent and interpret the genetic information flow at the molecular level, and explore the fundamental principle of molecular biology at the system level. Specifically, group theory was employed to interpret concepts and properties of gene mutation, and predict backbone torsion angle along the peptide chain. Finite state machine theory was extensively applied to interpret key concepts and analyze the processes related to DNA hybridization. Using the proposed model, we have transferred the character-based model in molecular biology to a sophisticated mathematical model for calculation and interpretation.
Theoretical models for recombination in expanding gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avron, Y.; Kahane, S.
1978-09-01
In laser isotope separation of atomic uranium, one is confronted with the theoretical problem of estimating the concentration of thermally ionized uranium atoms. To investigate this problem theoretical models for recombination in an expanding gas and in the absence of local thermal equilibrium have been constructed. The expansion of the gas is described by soluble models of the hydrodynamic equation, and the recombination by rate equations. General results for the freezing effect for the suitable ranges of the gas parameters are obtained. The impossibility of thermal equilibrium in expanding two-component systems is proven
Theoretical model for the mechanical behavior of prestressed beams under torsion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sérgio M.R. Lopes
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this article, a global theoretical model previously developed and validated by the authors for reinforced concrete beams under torsion is reviewed and corrected in order to predict the global behavior of beams under torsion with uniform longitudinal prestress. These corrections are based on the introduction of prestress factors and on the modification of the equilibrium equations in order to incorporate the contribution of the prestressing reinforcement. The theoretical results obtained with the new model are compared with some available results of prestressed concrete (PC beams under torsion found in the literature. The results obtained in this study validate the proposed computing procedure to predict the overall behavior of PC beams under torsion.
Vibrational properties of gold nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis
Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Bueno, L. Oscar Neira; Britto Hurtado, R.; Rocha-Rocha, O.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Serrano-Corrales, Luis Ivan; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.
2016-10-01
This study reports the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles through an ecological method to obtain nanostructures from the extract of the plant Opuntia ficus-indica. Colloidal nanoparticles show sizes that vary between 10-20 nm, and present various geometric morphologies. The samples were characterized through optical absorption, Raman Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Additionally, low energy metallic clusters of Aun (n=2-20 atoms) were modeled by computational quantum chemistry. The theoretical results were obtained with Density Functional Theory (DFT). The predicted results of Au clusters show a tendency and are correlated with the experimental results concerning the optical absorption bands and Raman spectroscopy in gold nanoparticles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourret, A.
1975-01-01
Practical and theoretical conditions for obtaining high resolution lattice images are presented. The use of a high voltage electron microscope is particularly powerful to visualize distances smaller than 3A. A 2A resolution test on (200) gold planes has been carried out on the Grenoble 1MV microscope. It would be possible at this level to study the crystalline defects such as dislocations or grain boundaries [fr
DIFFERENCES IN RESULTS OBTAINED BY STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT FACULTIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
OTAVOVÁ, Miroslava
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses the results of statistical analysis of differences among scores obtained by students of different faculties of the University of Economics in Prague. The analysed dataset contains the scores for 2256 students that took basic mathematics course during the academic year 2013/2014. A two way analysis of variance was performed with semester and faculty as main factors. The interaction between these two factors was also considered. Students have to take two tests. At first, the sum of the scores obtained from both tests is analysed and then, the two tests are analysed separately. It turns out that the significance of factors is the same in the three analyses. The assumptions of linear models are verified. Due to problem of heteroscedasticity, weighted least squares are used and the possibility of using Box-Cox transformation is also discussed, as the errors are not normally distributed. Finally, the differences between the faculties are described.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrieux, Chantal
1976-03-01
The neutronic evolution of the reacteur Sena during the first and second cycles is presented. The experimental power distributions, obtained from the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE are compared with the theoretical powers calculated with the two-dimensional diffusion-evolution code EVOE. The CIRCE code allows: the study of the evolution of the principal parameters of the core, the comparison of the results of measured and theoretical estimates. Therefore this study has a great interest for the knowledge of the neutronic evolution of the core, as well as the validation of the refinement of theoretical estimation methods. The core calculation methods and requisite data for the evaluation of the measurements are presented after a brief description of the SENA core and its inner instrumentation. The principle of the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE, and calculation of the experimental power distributions and nuclear core parameters are then exposed. The results of the evaluation are discussed, with a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results. Taking account of the approximations used, these results, as far as the first and second cycles at SENA are concerned, are satisfactory, the deviations between theoretical and experimental power distributions being lower than 3% at the middle of the reactor and 9% at the periphery [fr
An overview of results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benedik, L.
2013-01-01
In recent years the Jožef Stefan Institute participated in numerous intercomparison exercises for determination of natural and man-made radionuclides. The reported values were mostly in good agreement with the resulting reference values. This paper describes an analysis of the measurement results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides in the period from 2009 to 2011, organised by the National Physical Laboratory and the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz. The review covers neptunium, plutonium and americium radioisotopes over this period. - Highlights: • The goal of this study is an overview of results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides. • The disagreement of results for Np-237 was evaluated. • Improvements in separation procedures were done
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez Diaz, A.; Gonzalez, G.J.; Torres, A.L.; Fraxedas, M.R.
2007-01-01
Full text: Using national and international recommendations about human resource in Nuclear Medicine, a group of experts organized a National Course for the education and training of physicist who work in Cuban hospitals, adapted to national condition and practice of Nuclear Medicine. The program was approved for National Authorities in Nuclear Security and University Schools in Medicine. The program contains two intensive theoretic and practical courses, to be completed over a period of 15 days of full time engagement, complemented with 4 month full attachment to a Nuclear Medicine Service monitored by accredited expert. The theoretical/practical intensive courses have final evaluation: combining practical exercise and a final test. When all docent activities finish the students should clear a final theoretical/practical evaluation by an examination board comprising of at least three accredited experts. The theoretical/practical courses were attended by 19 physicists working in hospitals in Cuba. The contents of the first course included, Introduction to Nuclear Medicine, Principle of NM equipment, Quality assurance and quality control of NM equipment, Radiation Protection and Licence Topics of NM Services. The second course had the following topics: Acquisition and Processing methods in Nuclear Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Techniques and Clinical Dosimetry for radiopharmaceutical therapy. With 100 point of maximum score and 60 point minimum to pass, the final test of this first course comprised of 2 types of questions: 1 Multiple choice questions and 2. long essay type questions. The average scores obtained by the participants was 87.02 points/ students (range 65- 100 points). The students pass the test with very good degree of comprehension: 10-Excellent (90-100 points), 5- Very good (80-89 points), 2-Good (70-79 point) and 2- satisfactory standard (60-69 point). The students evaluated 'satisfactory' the quality of the course (in anonymous poll), reporting like
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quintana, E.E.; Tossi, M.H.; Telleria, D.M.
1990-01-01
Collective doses produced during the normal working of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant are calculated using annual atmospheric factors. This work studies the behaviour of the dilution factors in different periods of the year in order to fit the calculated dose model applying factors from seasonal, monthly or weekly periods. The Radiation Protection Group of the C.N.E.A. have carried out continuous environmental monitoring in the surroundings of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant. These studies include the measurement of air tritium concentration, radionuclide that is found principally as tritiated water vapour. This isotope, normally released by the nuclear power plant was used as a tracer to assess the atmospheric dilution factors. Factors were calculated by two methods: an experimental one, based on environmental measurements of the tritium concentration in the surroundings of the nuclear power plant and another one by applying a theoretical model based on information from the micrometeorological tower located in the mentioned place. To carry out the environmental monitoring, four monitoring stations in the surroundings of the power plant were chosen. Three of them are approximately one kilometer from the plant and the fourth is 7.5 km away, near the city of Lima. To condense and collect the atmospheric water vapour, an overcooling system was used. The measurement was performed by liquid scintillation counting, previous alkaline electrolytical enrichment of the samples. The theoretical model uses hourly values of direction and wind intensity, as well as the atmospheric dispersive properties. Values obtained during the period 1976 to 1988 allowed, applying statistical tests, to validate the theoretical model and to observe seasonal variation of the dilution factors throughout the same year and between different years. Finally, results and graphics are presented showing that the behaviour of the dilution factors in different periods of the year. It is recommended to
MHD activity in the ISX-B tokamak: experimental results and theoretical interpretation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carreras, B.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Bell, J.D.; Charlton, L.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Dory, R.A.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.
1982-01-01
The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations in the ISX-B tokamak is clearly dominated by the n=1 mode when the q=1 surface is in the plasma. This fact agrees well with theoretical predictions based on 3-D resistive MHD calculations. They show that the (m=1; n=1) mode is then the dominant instability. It drives other n=1 modes through toroidal coupling and n>1 modes through nonlinear couplings. These theoretically predicted mode structures have been compared in detail with the experimentally measured wave forms (using arrays of soft x-ray detectors). The agreement is excellent. More detailed comparisons between theory and experiment have required careful reconstructions of the ISX-B equilibria. The equilibria so constructed have permitted a precise evaluation of the ideal MHD stability properties of ISX-B. The present results indicate that the high ..beta.. ISX-B equilibria are marginally stable to finite eta ideal MHD modes. The resistive MHD calculations also show that at finite ..beta.. there are unstable resistive pressure driven modes.
Theoretical nuclear reaction and structure studies using hyperons and photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cotanch, S.R.
1991-01-01
This report details research progress and results obtained during the 12 month period from January 1991 through 31 December 1991. The research project, entitled ''Theoretical Nuclear Reaction and Structure Studies Using Hyperons and Photons,'' is supported by grant DE-FG05-88ER40461 between North Carolina State University and the United States Department of Energy. In compliance with grant requirements the Principal Investigator, Professor Stephen R. Cotanch, has conducted a research program addressing theoretical investigations of reactions involving hyperons and photons. The new, significant research results are briefly summarized in the following sections
Analysis of the results obtained by optical measurements in plasma focus equipments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilbao, L.; Bruzzone, H.
1982-01-01
The results obtained by shadow and Schlieren photographies and interferometry in a 1MJ plasma focus device of Frascati (CNEN-EURATOM, Italy) are compared with a great number of similar measurement results in several devices of the world. A critical analysis of the above results is presented. (L.C.) [pt
Cytogenetical effects of low doses: results obtained by N.N.Luchik and present-day problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geras'kin, S.A.; Sevan'kaev, A.V.
1996-01-01
The analysis of present status of the problem of quantitative assessment of cytogenetic effects low is presented. The importance of works of N.V. Luchik is demonstrated for the development of this field of radiobiology. The results of the author's own experimental and theoretical research on the regularities of induction of cytogenetical damage by low doses of ionising radiation are presented
Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwiecinski, J.
2000-01-01
Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research, yet the more formal problems are also considered. The detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various fields is given in the abstracts. Our Department actively collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular members of our Department participate in the EC network which allows mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department have also participated in the research projects funded by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). The complete list of grants is listed separately. Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and undergraduate teaching activity both at our Institute as well as at other academic institutions in Cracow. At present five students are working for their Ph.D. or MSc degrees under supervision of the senior members from the Department. We continue our participation at the EC SOCRATES-ERASMUS educational programme which allows exchange of graduate students between our Department and the Department of Physics of the University of Durham in the UK. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Lai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Industrial simulation of real external load using multiple exciting points or increasing exciting force by synchronizing multiple exciting forces requires multiple vibration hammers to be coordinated and work together. Multihammer vibration system which consists of several hammers is a complex electromechanical system with complex electromechanical coupling. In this paper, electromechanical coupling properties of such a multihammer vibration system were studied in detail using theoretical derivation, numerical simulation, and experiment. A kinetic model of multihammer synchronous vibration system was established, and approximate expressions for electromechanical coupling strength were solved using a small parameter periodic averaging method. Basic coupling rules and reasons were obtained. Self-synchronization and frequency hopping phenomenon were also analyzed. Subsequently, numerical simulations were carried out and electromechanical coupling process was obtained for different parameters. Simulation results verify correctness of the proposed model and results. Finally, experiments were carried out, self-synchronization and frequency hopping phenomenon were both observed, and results agree well with theoretical deduction and simulation results. These results provide theoretical foundations for multihammer synchronous vibration system and its synchronous control.
Valente, Marco A. G.; Teixeira, Deiver A.; Azevedo, David L.; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Benedetti, Assis V.; Fugivara, Cecílio S.
2017-01-01
The interaction of volatile corrosion inhibitors (VCI), caprylate salt derivatives from amines, with zinc metallic surfaces is assessed by density functional theory (DFT) computer simulations, electrochemical impedance (EIS) measurements and humid chamber tests. The results obtained by the different methods were compared, and linear correlations were obtained between theoretical and experimental data. The correlations between experimental and theoretical results showed that the molecular size is the determining factor in the inhibition efficiency. The models used and experimental results indicated that dicyclohexylamine caprylate is the most efficient inhibitor. PMID:28620602
The heat of formation of the acetyl cation: a theoretical evaluation
Smith, Brian J.; Radom, Leo
1990-12-01
Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been used to obtain the heat of formation of the acetyl cation. In one set of calculations, the reverse activation barrier for the production of acetyl cation from acetaldehyde has been shown to be significantly different zero and the value obtained (9.8 kJ mol-1 at 298 K) has been used to correct the [Delta]Hof298 (CH3CO+) value derived from appearance energy measurements. In a second set of calculations, [Delta]H°f298 (CH3CO+) has been obtained from the calculated heats of a number of reactions involving the acetyl cation together with experimental heats of formation for the species involved. The best theoretical estimate for [Delta]H°f298 (CH3CO+), obtained as a mean of results from the two approaches, is 658 kJ mol-1. The best theoretical estimate for [Delta]H°f0(CH3CO+), obtained in a similar manner, is 665 kJ mol-1.
Slow dynamics at critical points: the field-theoretical perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gambassi, Andrea
2006-01-01
The dynamics at a critical point provides a simple instance of slow collective evolution, characterised by aging phenomena and by a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation even for long times. By virtue of the universality in critical phenomena it is possible to provide quantitative predictions for some aspects of these behaviours by field-theoretical methods. We review some of the theoretical results that have been obtained in recent years for the relevant (universal) quantities, such as the fluctuation-dissipation ratio, associated with the non-equilibrium critical dynamics
Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.
Cébron, David; Viroulet, Sylvain; Vidal, Jérémie; Masson, Jean-Paul; Viroulet, Philippe
2017-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.
Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Cébron
Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.
Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment
Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin
2011-06-01
The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.
Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Formability of Explosive Welded Mg/Al Bimetallic Bars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mróz S.
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The paper has presented the results of theoretical studies and experimental tests of the plastic deformation of Mg/Al bimetallic specimens. Theoretical studies were carried out using the Forge2011® computer program. Physical modeling, on the other hand, was performed using the Gleeble3800 simulator. Bimetallic bars of an outer diameter of 22.5 mm and a cladding layer thickness of 1.7 mm were obtained by the explosive welding method. Samples for formability tests, characterized by a diameter-to-length ratio of 1, were taken from the bars. The theoretical studies and experimental tests were carried out for the temperature range from 300 to 400°C and for different strain rates. Based on the obtained investigation results it has been found that the main parameters influencing the formability of Mg/Al bimetallic bars are strain rate than the process temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carniato, S.; Selles, P.; Andric, L.; Palaudoux, J.; Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Žitnik, M.; Bučar, K.; Nakano, M.; Hikosaka, Y.; Ito, K.
2015-01-01
We present in detail a theoretical model that provides absolute cross sections for simultaneous core-ionization core-excitation (K −2 V ) and compare its predictions with experimental results obtained on the water molecule after photoionization by synchrotron radiation. Two resonances of different symmetries are assigned in the main K −2 V peak and comparable contributions from monopolar (direct shake-up) and dipolar (conjugate shake-up) core-valence excitations are identified. The main peak is observed with a much greater width than the total experimental resolution. This broadening is the signature of nuclear dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laval, G.
1988-01-01
The 1988 progress report of the theoretical Physics Center (Ecole Polytechnique, France), is presented. The research activities are carried out in the fields of the supersymmetry theory, the dynamic systems theory, the statistical mechanics, the plasma physics and the random media. Substantial improvements are obtained on dynamical system investigations. In the field theory, the definition of the Gross-Neveu model is achieved. However the construction of the non-abelian gauge theories and the conformal theories are the main research activities. Concerning Astrophysics, a three-dimensional gravitational code is obtained. The activities of each team, and the list of the published papers, congress communications and thesis are given [fr
Self-propelled prospection methodology: first results obtained in the northeast basin (Uruguay)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goso, H; Spoturno, J; Peciozzi, F.
2008-01-01
This report refers about uranium prospection methodology in Uruguay and its first results obtained in the northeast basin.The preliminary radiometric researching is carried out four works phases: material preparation, radiometric, statistics analysis, anomalies revision
Theoretical results on the tandem junction solar cell based on its Ebers-Moll transistor model
Goradia, C.; Vaughn, J.; Baraona, C. R.
1980-01-01
A one-dimensional theoretical model of the tandem junction solar cell (TJC) with base resistivity greater than about 1 ohm-cm and under low level injection has been derived. This model extends a previously published conceptual model which treats the TJC as an npn transistor. The model gives theoretical expressions for each of the Ebers-Moll type currents of the illuminated TJC and allows for the calculation of the spectral response, I(sc), V(oc), FF and eta under variation of one or more of the geometrical and material parameters and 1MeV electron fluence. Results of computer calculations based on this model are presented and discussed. These results indicate that for space applications, both a high beginning of life efficiency, greater than 15% AM0, and a high radiation tolerance can be achieved only with thin (less than 50 microns) TJC's with high base resistivity (greater than 10 ohm-cm).
Overview of galactic results obtained by MAGIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zanin, Roberta
2013-06-15
MAGIC is a system of two atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes which explores the very-high-energy sky, from some tens of GeV up to tens of TeV. Located in the Canary island of La Palma, MAGIC has the lowest energy threshold among the instruments of its kind, well suited to study the still poorly explored energy band below 100 GeV. Although the space-borne gamma-ray telescope Fermi/LAT is sensitive up to 300 GeV, gamma-ray rates drop fast with increasing energy, so γ-ray collection areas larger than 10{sup 4}m{sup 2}, as those provided by grounds-based instruments, are crucial above a few GeV. The combination of MAGIC and Fermi/LAT observations have provided the first astrophysical spectra sampled in the inverse Compton peak region, resulting in a complete coverage from MeV up to TeV energies, as well as the discovery of a pulsed emission in the very-high-energy band. This paper focuses on the latest results on Galactic sources obtained by MAGIC which are highlighted by the detection of the pulsed gamma-ray emission from the Crab pulsar up to 400 GeV. In addition, we will present the morphological study on the W51 complex which allowed to pinpoint the location of the majority of the emission around the interaction point between the supernova remnant W51C and the star forming region W51B, but also to find a possible contribution from the associated pulsar wind nebula. Other important scientific achievements involve the Crab Nebula with an unprecedented spectrum covering three decades in energy starting from 50 GeV and a morphological study of the unidentified source HESS J1857+026 which supports the pulsar wind nebula scenario. Finally we will report on the searches of very-high-energy signals from gamma-ray binaries, mainly LS I 303+ and HESS J0632+057.
Experimental and theoretical Compton profiles of Be, C and Al
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguiar, Julio C., E-mail: jaguiar@arn.gob.a [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, C1429BNP, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica ' Arroyo Seco' , Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, U.N.C.P.B.A., Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Di Rocco, Hector O. [Instituto de Fisica ' Arroyo Seco' , Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, U.N.C.P.B.A., Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Arazi, Andres [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2011-02-01
The results of Compton profile measurements, Fermi momentum determinations, and theoretical values obtained from a linear combination of Slater-type orbital (STO) for core electrons in beryllium; carbon and aluminium are presented. In addition, a Thomas-Fermi model is used to estimate the contribution of valence electrons to the Compton profile. Measurements were performed using monoenergetic photons of 59.54 keV provided by a low-intensity Am-241 {gamma}-ray source. Scattered photons were detected at 90{sup o} from the beam direction using a p-type coaxial high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations.
Theoretical Study on the Flow of Refilling Stage in a Safety Injection Tank
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Jun Sang [Halla Univ. Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-10-15
In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed to the flow of refilling stage in a safety injection tank, which is the core cooling system of nuclear power plant in an emergency. A theoretical model was proposed with a nonlinear governing equation defining on the flow of the refilling process of the coolant. Utilizing the Taylor-series expansion, the 1st - order approximation flow equation was obtained, along with its analytic solution of closed type, which could predict accurately the variations of free surface height and flow rate of the coolant. The availability of theoretical result was confirmed by comparing with previous experimental results.
Theoretical interpretation of medium energy nucleon nucleus inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lagrange, Christian
1970-06-01
A theoretical study is made of the medium energy nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering (direct interaction), by applying the distorted wave Born approximation such as can be deduced from the paired equation method. It is applied to the interpretation of the inelastic scattering of 12 MeV protons by 63 Cu; this leads us to make use of different sets of wave functions to describe the various states of the target nucleus. We analyze the nature of these states and the shape of the nucleon-nucleus interaction potential, and we compare the results with those obtained from other theoretical and experimental work. (author) [fr
Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwiecinski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1995-12-31
Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy {pi}{pi} and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S{sub p}(6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars.
Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwiecinski, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1996-12-31
Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy {pi}{pi} and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S{sub p}(6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars.
Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwiecinski, J.
1995-01-01
Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy ππ and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S p (6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars
Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwiecinski, J.
1999-01-01
Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research yet the more formal problems are also considered. The detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various fields is given in the abstracts. Our Department actively collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular members of our Department participate in the EC network which allows mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department have also participated in the research projects funded by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). The complete list of grants is listed separately. Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and undergraduate teaching activity both at our Institute as well as at other academic institutions in Cracow. At present five PhD students are working for their degree under supervision of the senior members from the Department. In the last year we have completed our active participation in the educational TEMPUS programme funded by the European Communities. This programme has in particular allowed exchange of students between our Department and the Department of Physics of the University of Durham in the United Kingdom. In 1998 we joined the SOCRATES - ERASMUS project which will make it possible to continue this exchange. (author)
Theoretical and Experimental Results Regarding LENR/CF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robert W. Bass; Wm. Stan Gleeson
2000-01-01
We challenge the predominant view that low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) are prohibited by standard quantum mechanics (QM). This view, supposedly based on standard nuclear theory, need not apply in condensed-matter environments. These considerations indicate that seemingly novel experimental evidence of rapid aneutronic bulk-process transmutation, at extraordinarily low-energy levels, in a simple electrochemical reactor, can occur. This explains: (a) induced rapid decay of radioactive thorium into stable nuclides, e.g., Cu and (b) resulting, anomalous distribution of Cu isotopes. We reexamine arguments of Peebles cited as evidence that standard QM 'forbids' cold fusion (CF). We note oversimplifications in those and present an alternative, more sophisticated calculation (see Bass, Refs. 3 through 8) demonstrating that conventional wisdom about impenetrability of the 'Coulomb barrier' fails as a result of periodic-order-induced resonance. We also examine empirical evidence. In three independent tests of an LENR electrolysis cell, using different I-V-T (current/voltage/time) protocols, the percentage of radiation reduction (RR) transmutation achieved η=[23%, 50%, 83%] versus expended energy E=[0.6535, 32.5, 74.6] (Watt-hours), obtained by numerical integration of recorded product I · V for processing time T, provides near-perfect straight-line correlation: η=α·E + η 0 , α=0.8105, η 0 =22.888, (0.65 < E < 0.75)
CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E.
2000-01-01
This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs
LEP and results obtained by DELPHI after four years of operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blocki, J.
1993-10-01
We characterize the most important problems of modern elementary particles physics, for the solution of which the LEP (Large Electron Positron) accelerator was built. We present the characteristics of this accelerator. The structure and properties of the DELPHI detector are described with special emphasis on the contribution of Polish groups. The most important results obtained so far in the LEP accelerator are discussed. (author). 12 refs, 17 figs, 1 tab
Comparison of the results of radiation transport calculation obtained by means of different programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorbatkov, D.V.; Kruchkov, V.P.
1995-01-01
Verification of calculational results of radiation transport, obtained by the known, programs and constant libraries (MCNP+ENDF/B, ANISN+HILO, FLUKA92) by means of their comparison with the precision results calculations through ROZ-6N+Sadko program constant complex and with experimental data, is carried out. Satisfactory agreement is shown with the MCNP+ENDF/B package data for the energy range of E<14 MeV. Analysis of the results derivations, obtained trough the ANISN-HILO package for E<400 MeV and the FLUKA92 programs of E<200 GeV is carried out. 25 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs
Out-of-pile simulation experiments and theoretical analysis on sodium fuel interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conti, M.; Luigi, G. Di; Federico, A.; Mennini, G.; Scarano, G.; Tavano, F.
1978-01-01
Activities on fuel coolant interaction are being carried out since many years at C.N.E.N. in the frame of the Italian Fast Reactor Program. This paper describes the experimental and theoretical results recently obtained. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Laulainen, Nels S.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Knott, Michael; Ford, Ian J.
2000-01-01
A laminar flow tube reactor was designed and constructed to provide an accurate, quantitative measurement of a nucleation rate as a function of supersaturation and temperature. Measurements of nucleation of a supersaturated vapor of dibutylphthalate have been made for the temperature range from -30.3 to +19.1 degree sign C. A thorough analysis of the possible sources of experimental uncertainties (such as defining the correct value of the initial vapor concentration, temperature boundary conditions on the reactor walls, accuracy of the calculations of the thermodynamic parameters of the nucleation zone, and particle concentration measurement) is given. Both isothermal and the isobaric nucleation rates were measured. The experimental data obtained were compared with the measurements of other experimental groups and with theoretical predictions made on the basis of the self-consistency correction nucleation theory. Theoretical analysis, based on the first and the second nucleation theorems, is also presented. The critical cluster size and the excess of internal energy of the critical cluster are obtained. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Toshinori; Okada, Eiji
2004-01-01
Near-infrared (NIR) topography can obtain a topographical distribution of the activated region in the brain cortex. Near-infrared light is strongly scattered in the head, and the volume of tissue sampled by a source-detector pair on the head surface is broadly distributed in the brain. This scattering effect results in poor resolution and contrast in the topographic image of the brain activity. In this study, a one-dimensional distribution of absorption change in a head model is calculated by mapping and reconstruction methods to evaluate the effect of the image reconstruction algorithm and the interval of measurement points for topographic imaging on the accuracy of the topographic image. The light propagation in the head model is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the spatial sensitivity profile for a source-detector pair. The measurement points are one-dimensionally arranged on the surface of the model, and the distance between adjacent measurement points is varied from 4 mm to 28 mm. Small intervals of the measurement points improve the topographic image calculated by both the mapping and reconstruction methods. In the conventional mapping method, the limit of the spatial resolution depends upon the interval of the measurement points and spatial sensitivity profile for source-detector pairs. The reconstruction method has advantages over the mapping method which improve the results of one-dimensional analysis when the interval of measurement points is less than 12 mm. The effect of overlapping of spatial sensitivity profiles indicates that the reconstruction method may be effective to improve the spatial resolution of a two-dimensional reconstruction of topographic image obtained with larger interval of measurement points. Near-infrared topography with the reconstruction method potentially obtains an accurate distribution of absorption change in the brain even if the size of absorption change is less than 10 mm
A theoretical model of semi-elliptic surface crack growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shi Kaikai
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A theoretical model of semi-elliptic surface crack growth based on the low cycle strain damage accumulation near the crack tip along the cracking direction and the Newman–Raju formula is developed. The crack is regarded as a sharp notch with a small curvature radius and the process zone is assumed to be the size of cyclic plastic zone. The modified Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren (HRR formulations are used in the presented study. Assuming that the shape of surface crack front is controlled by two critical points: the deepest point and the surface point. The theoretical model is applied to semi-elliptic surface cracked Al 7075-T6 alloy plate under cyclic loading, and five different initial crack shapes are discussed in present study. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is obtained.
Minetti, A E; Ardigò, L P; Susta, D; Cotelli, F
1998-12-01
The use of muscles as power dissipators is investigated in this study, both from the modellistic and the experimental points of view. Theoretical predictions of the drop landing manoeuvre for a range of initial conditions have been obtained by accounting for the mechanical characteristics of knee extensor muscles, the limb geometry and assuming maximum neural activation. Resulting dynamics have been represented in the phase plane (vertical displacement versus speed) to better classify the damping performance. Predictions of safe landing in sedentary subjects were associated to dropping from a maximum (feet) height of 1.6-2.0 m (about 11 m on the moon). Athletes can extend up to 2.6-3.0 m, while for obese males (m = 100 kg, standard stature) the limit should reduce to 0.9-1.3 m. These results have been calculated by including in the model the estimated stiffness of the 'global elastic elements' acting below the squat position. Experimental landings from a height of 0.4, 0.7, 1.1 m (sedentary males (SM) and male (AM) and female (AF) athletes from the alpine ski national team) showed dynamics similar to the model predictions. While the peak power (for a drop height of about 0.7 m) was similar in SM and AF (AM shows a +40% increase, about 33 W/kg), AF stopped the downward movement after a time interval (0.219 +/- 0.030 s) from touch-down 20% significantly shorter than SM. Landing strategy and the effect of anatomical constraints are discussed in the paper.
Theoretical analysis of radiographic images by nonstationary Poisson processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Kazuo; Uchida, Suguru; Yamada, Isao.
1980-01-01
This paper deals with the noise analysis of radiographic images obtained in the usual fluorescent screen-film system. The theory of nonstationary Poisson processes is applied to the analysis of the radiographic images containing the object information. The ensemble averages, the autocorrelation functions, and the Wiener spectrum densities of the light-energy distribution at the fluorescent screen and of the film optical-density distribution are obtained. The detection characteristics of the system are evaluated theoretically. Numerical examples one-dimensional image are shown and the results are compared with those obtained under the assumption that the object image is related to the background noise by the additive process. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verrier Etienne
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Selection programmes are mainly concerned with increasing genetic gain. However, short-term progress should not be obtained at the expense of the within-population genetic variability. Different prediction models for the evolution within a small population of the genetic mean of a selected trait, its genetic variance and its inbreeding have been developed but have mainly been validated through Monte Carlo simulation studies. The purpose of this study was to compare theoretical predictions to experimental results. Two deterministic methods were considered, both grounded on a polygenic additive model. Differences between theoretical predictions and experimental results arise from differences between the true and the assumed genetic model, and from mathematical simplifications applied in the prediction methods. Two sets of experimental lines of chickens were used in this study: the Dutch lines undergoing true truncation mass selection, the other lines (French undergoing mass selection with a restriction on the representation of the different families. This study confirmed, on an experimental basis, that modelling is an efficient approach to make useful predictions of the evolution of selected populations although the basic assumptions considered in the models (polygenic additive model, normality of the distribution, base population at the equilibrium, etc. are not met in reality. The two deterministic methods compared yielded results that were close to those observed in real data, especially when the selection scheme followed the rules of strict mass selection: for instance, both predictions overestimated the genetic gain in the French experiment, whereas both predictions were close to the observed values in the Dutch experiment.
Comparative experimental and theoretical investigations of the DM neutron moisture probe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ølgaard, Povl Lebeck; Haahr, Vagner
1967-01-01
Theoretical and experimental investigations of the Danish produced DM subsurface moisture probe have been carried out at the Research Establishment Risö, and the results obtained are presented in this paper. The DM probe contains an Am-Be fast neutron source and has a glass scintillator containing...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riviere, J.; Barbe, B.; Millard, A.; Koundy, V.
1988-01-01
The prevision of the behavior of the 1/6 scale concrete model under internal pressure was realized by means of two computations, the first one with an infinite soil rigidity, the second one with a soil rigidity equal to 61.26 MPa/m. These two computations, that assumed a perfectly axisymetric structure gave theoretical and experimental results in good agreement, except the raft of which the theoretical uplift was three times higher than the experimental one. The main conclusions of this study are as follow: the soil stiffness has no influence on the ultimate behavior of the model, the dead concrete rigidity decreases the raft uplift in an important way, the model is destroyed because the hoop stress reaches the ultimate strength
Results of theoretical studies on power noise of PWR type reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, K.
1979-12-01
For evaluating noise measurements of neutron flux in power reactors position-dependent effects are taken into account. Based on an effective one-group diffusion model results are obtained for reactor noise due to vibrating control elements and disturbances in the coolant flow
Obtaining patient test results from clinical laboratories: a survey of state law for pharmacists.
Witry, Matthew J; Doucette, William R
2009-01-01
To identify states with laws that restrict to whom clinical laboratories may release copies of laboratory test results and to describe how these laws may affect pharmacists' ability to obtain patient laboratory test results. Researchers examined state statutes and administrative codes for all 50 states and the District of Columbia at the University of Iowa Law Library between June and July 2007. Researchers also consulted with lawyers, state Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments officers, and law librarians. Laws relating to the study objective were analyzed. 34 jurisdictions do not restrict the release of laboratory test results, while 17 states have laws that restrict to whom clinical laboratories can send copies of test results. In these states, pharmacists will have to use alternative sources, such as physician offices, to obtain test results. Pharmacists must consider state law before requesting copies of laboratory test results from clinical laboratories. This may be an issue that state pharmacy associations can address to increase pharmacist access to important patient information.
New theoretical results in synchrotron radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagrov, V.G. [Tomsk State University, Lenin Avenue 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: bagrov@phys.tsu.ru; Gitman, D.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tlyachev, V.B. [Tomsk Institute of High Current Electronics, Akademicheskiy Avenue 4, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Jarovoi, A.T. [Tomsk State University, Lenin Avenue 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2005-11-15
One of the remarkable features of the relativistic electron synchrotron radiation is its concentration in small angle {delta}{approx}1/{gamma} (here {gamma}-relativistic factor: {gamma}=E/mc{sup 2}, E - energy, m - electron rest mass, c - light velocity) near rotation orbit plane [V.G. Bagrov, V.A. Bordovitsyn, V.G. Bulenok, V. Ya. Epp, Kinematical projection of pulsar synchrotron radiation profiles, in: Proceedings of IV ISTC Scientific Advisory Commitee Seminar on Basic Science in ISTC Aktivities, Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk, April 23-27, 2001, p. 293-300]. This theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed feature is peculiar to total (spectrum summarized) radiating intensity. This angular distribution property has been supposed to be (at least qualitatively) conserved and for separate spectrum synchrotron radiation components. In the work of V.G. Bagrov, V.A. Bordovitsyn, V. Ch. Zhukovskii, Development of the theory of synchrotron radiation and related processes. Synchrotron source of JINR: the perspective of research, in: The Materials of the Second International Work Conference, Dubna, April 2-6, 2001, pp. 15-30 and in Angular dependence of synchrotron radiation intensity. http://lanl.arXiv.org/abs/physics/0209097, it is shown that the angular distribution of separate synchrotron radiation spectrum components demonstrates directly inverse tendency - the angular distribution deconcentration relatively the orbit plane takes place with electron energy growth. The present work is devoted to detailed investigation of this situation. For exact quantitative estimation of angular concentration degree of synchrotron radiation the definition of radiation effective angle and deviation angle is proposed. For different polarization components of radiation the dependence of introduced characteristics was investigated as a functions of electron energy and number of spectrum component.
Surface physics theoretical models and experimental methods
Mamonova, Marina V; Prudnikova, I A
2016-01-01
The demands of production, such as thin films in microelectronics, rely on consideration of factors influencing the interaction of dissimilar materials that make contact with their surfaces. Bond formation between surface layers of dissimilar condensed solids-termed adhesion-depends on the nature of the contacting bodies. Thus, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of adhesion interaction of different materials from both applied and fundamental perspectives of surface phenomena. Given the difficulty in obtaining reliable experimental values of the adhesion strength of coatings, the theoretical approach to determining adhesion characteristics becomes more important. Surface Physics: Theoretical Models and Experimental Methods presents straightforward and efficient approaches and methods developed by the authors that enable the calculation of surface and adhesion characteristics for a wide range of materials: metals, alloys, semiconductors, and complex compounds. The authors compare results from the ...
Muraca, R. J.; Stephens, M. V.; Dagenhart, J. R.
1975-01-01
A general analysis capable of predicting performance characteristics of cross-wind axis turbines was developed, including the effects of airfoil geometry, support struts, blade aspect ratio, windmill solidity, blade interference and curved flow. The results were compared with available wind tunnel results for a catenary blade shape. A theoretical performance curve for an aerodynamically efficient straight blade configuration was also presented. In addition, a linearized analytical solution applicable for straight configurations was developed. A listing of the computer program developed for numerical solutions of the general performance equations is included in the appendix.
Theoretical study of a melting curve for tin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Xi; Ling-Cang, Cai
2009-01-01
The melting curve of Sn has been calculated using the dislocation-mediated melting model with the 'zone-linking method'. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data. According to our calculation, the melting temperature of γ-Sn at zero pressure is about 436 K obtained by the extrapolation of the method from the triple point of Sn. The results show that this calculation method is better than other theoretical methods for predicting the melting curve of polymorphic material Sn. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)
Spin-dependent Hall effect in degenerate semiconductors: a theoretical study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idrish Miah, M [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au
2008-10-15
The spin-dependent Hall (SDH) effect in degenerate semiconductors is investigated theoretically. Starting from a two-component drift-diffusion equation, an expression for SDH voltage (V{sub SDH}) is derived, and drift and diffusive contributions to V{sub SDH} are studied. For the possible enhancement of the diffusive part, degenerate and nondegenerate cases are examined. We find that due to an increase in the diffusion coefficient V{sub SDH} increases in a degenerate semiconductor, consistent with the experimental observations. The expression for V{sub SDH} is reduced in three limiting cases, namely diffusive, drift-diffusion crossover and drift, and is analysed. The results agree with those obtained in recent theoretical investigations.
Spin-dependent Hall effect in degenerate semiconductors: a theoretical study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idrish Miah, M
2008-01-01
The spin-dependent Hall (SDH) effect in degenerate semiconductors is investigated theoretically. Starting from a two-component drift-diffusion equation, an expression for SDH voltage (V SDH ) is derived, and drift and diffusive contributions to V SDH are studied. For the possible enhancement of the diffusive part, degenerate and nondegenerate cases are examined. We find that due to an increase in the diffusion coefficient V SDH increases in a degenerate semiconductor, consistent with the experimental observations. The expression for V SDH is reduced in three limiting cases, namely diffusive, drift-diffusion crossover and drift, and is analysed. The results agree with those obtained in recent theoretical investigations.
A theoretical description of complex thermoluminescence curves: 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kantorovich, L.N.; Fogel, G.M.
1989-01-01
Thermoluminescence kinetics is discussed using a model with one type of recombination centre and an arbitrary number of trapping centre types, assuming that electron retrapping is dominant. A distinctive feature of the suggested method is that an integral equation is obtained for the one-time function z(t) through which both the intensity of the thermoluminescence curve (TLC) and the concentration of charge carriers are expressed. Using a series of approximations, which are analysed in detail, analytical solutions of the integral equation are obtained for an arbitrary elementary peak in a complex TLC consisting of a number of slightly overlapping peaks. The comparison of the theoretical results with the numerical ones obtained by the Runge-Kutta method shows that the obtained analytical expression is precise for the first peak and describes the following TLC peaks satisfactorily. The possibility of using the results of the present study for computer division of a complex TLC into elementary components, even in the case of considerably overlapping peaks, is also discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granger, L.; Rieg, C.Y.; Touret, J.P.; Fleury, F.; Nahas, G.; Danisch, R.; Brusa, L.; Millard, A.; Laborderie, C.; Ulm, F.; Contri, P.; Schimmelpfennig, K.; Barre, F.; Firnhaber, M.; Gauvain, J; Coulon, N.; Dutton, L.M.C.; Tuson, A.
2001-01-01
In 1996, EDF decided to build a containment model at the scale 1:3, the MAEVA mock-up, in order to check and study the behaviour of a pre-stressed concrete containment vessel without a liner in terms of mechanical strength and leaktightness, for loadings corresponding to its design and beyond design conditions. In parallel with the construction and testing of the mock-up, a cost-shared R and D action supported by the European Union, the CESA project, is dealing with quantification of leak rates through concrete cracks and porosity, predictive calculations of the behaviour of the mock-up and analysis of the experimental results. In this paper, we propose a synthesis of the main theoretical and experimental results, obtained after 2.5 years. It should however be noted that, due to some unexpected delays in the experimental programme, quite natural with such a huge and unique experimental set-up, only the design-basis accident sequences, already performed, have been reported in this paper. The first results are nevertheless very interesting, both from a scientific and nuclear utility point of view
Experimental and theoretical evidence for the chaotic dynamics of complex structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agop, M; Dimitriu, D G; Poll, E; Niculescu, O; Radu, V
2013-01-01
This paper presents the experimental results on the formation, dynamics and evolution towards chaos of complex space charge structures that emerge in front of a positively biased electrode immersed in a quiescent plasma. In certain experimental conditions, we managed to obtain the so-called multiple double layers (MDLs) with non-concentric configuration. Our experiments show that the interactions between each MDL's constituent entities are held responsible for the complex dynamics and eventually for its transition to chaos through cascades of spatio-temporal sub-harmonic bifurcations. Further, we build a theoretical model based on the fractal approximation (scale relativity theory) in order to reproduce the experimental results (plasma self-structuring and scenario of evolution to chaos). Comparing the experimental results with the theoretical ones, we observe a good correlation between them. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreri, Juan C.; Ambrosini, Walter
1998-01-01
The theoretical results given by Pierre Welander are used to test the capability of the RELAP5 series of codes to predict instabilities in single-phase flow. These results are related to the natural circulation in a loop formed by two parallel adiabatic tubes with a point heat sink at the top and a point heat source at the bottom. A stability curve may be defined for laminar flow and was extended to consider turbulent flow. By a suitable selection of the ratio of the total buoyancy force in the loop to the friction resistance, the flow may show instabilities. The solution was useful to test two basic numerical properties of the RELAP5 code, namely: a) convergence to steady state flow-rate using a 'lumped parameter' approximation to both the heat source and sink and; b) the effect of nodalization to numerically damp the instabilities. It was shown that, using a single volume to lump the heat source and sink, it was not possible to reach convergence to steady state flow rate when the heated (cooled) length was diminished and the heat transfer coefficient increased to keep constant the total heat transferred to (and removed from) the fluid. An algebraic justification of these results is presented, showing that it is a limitation inherent to the numerical scheme adopted. Concerning the effect of nodalization on the damping of instabilities, it was shown that a 'reasonably fine' discretization led, as expected, to the damping of the solution. However, the search for convergence of numerical and theoretical results was successful, showing the expected nearly chaotic behavior. This search lead to very refined nodalization. The results obtained have also been verified by the use of simple, ad hoc codes. A procedure to assess the effects of nodalization on the prediction of instabilities threshold is outlined in this report. It is based on the experience gained with aforementioned simpler codes. (author)
Theoretical analysis of surface stress for a microcantilever with varying widths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xianfang; Peng Xulong
2008-01-01
A theoretical model of surface stress is developed in this paper for a microcantilever with varying widths, and a method for calculating the surface stress via static deflection, slope angle or radius at curvature of the cantilever beam is presented. This model assumes that surface stresses are uniformly distributed on one surface of the cantilever beam. Based on this stressor model and using the small deformation Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, a fourth-order ordinary differential governing equation with varying coefficients or an equivalent second-order integro-differential equation is derived. A simple approach is then proposed to determine the solution of the resulting equation, and a closed-form approximate solution with high accuracy can be obtained. For rectangular and V-shaped microfabricated cantilevers, the dependences of transverse deflection, slope and curvature of the beam on the surface stresses are given explicitly. The obtained results indicate that the zeroth order approximation of the stressor model reduces to the end force model with a linear curvature for a rectangular cantilever. For larger surface stresses, the curvature exhibits a non-linear behaviour. The predictions through the stressor model give higher accuracy than those from the end moment and end force models and satisfactorily agree with experimental data. The derived closed-form solution can serve as a theoretical benchmark for verifying numerically obtained results for microcantilevers as atomic force microscopy and micromechanical sensors
Tube Bulge Process : Theoretical Analysis and Finite Element Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velasco, Raphael; Boudeau, Nathalie
2007-01-01
This paper is focused on the determination of mechanics characteristics for tubular materials, using tube bulge process. A comparative study is made between two different models: theoretical model and finite element analysis. The theoretical model is completely developed, based first on a geometrical analysis of the tube profile during bulging, which is assumed to strain in arc of circles. Strain and stress analysis complete the theoretical model, which allows to evaluate tube thickness and state of stress, at any point of the free bulge region. Free bulging of a 304L stainless steel is simulated using Ls-Dyna 970. To validate FE simulations approach, a comparison between theoretical and finite elements models is led on several parameters such as: thickness variation at the free bulge region pole with bulge height, tube thickness variation with z axial coordinate, and von Mises stress variation with plastic strain. Finally, the influence of geometrical parameters deviations on flow stress curve is observed using analytical model: deviations of the tube outer diameter, its initial thickness and the bulge height measurement are taken into account to obtain a resulting error on plastic strain and von Mises stress
Theoretical models to predict the mechanical behavior of thick composite tubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volnei Tita
2012-02-01
Full Text Available This paper shows theoretical models (analytical formulations to predict the mechanical behavior of thick composite tubes and how some parameters can influence this behavior. Thus, firstly, it was developed the analytical formulations for a pressurized tube made of composite material with a single thick ply and only one lamination angle. For this case, the stress distribution and the displacement fields are investigated as function of different lamination angles and reinforcement volume fractions. The results obtained by the theoretical model are physic consistent and coherent with the literature information. After that, the previous formulations are extended in order to predict the mechanical behavior of a thick laminated tube. Both analytical formulations are implemented as a computational tool via Matlab code. The results obtained by the computational tool are compared to the finite element analyses, and the stress distribution is considered coherent. Moreover, the engineering computational tool is used to perform failure analysis, using different types of failure criteria, which identifies the damaged ply and the mode of failure.
Theoretical and experimental study of fenofibrate and simvastatin
Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Rodríguez-Núñez, Jesús Rubén; Peña-Caballero, Vicente; Ruvalcaba, Rene Miranda; Aceves-Hernandez, Juan Manuel
2017-12-01
Fenofibrate, an oral fibrate lipid lowering agent, and simvastatin, which reduces plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), currently in the market. We characterized these APIs by thermal analysis and conducted X-ray powder diffraction techniques. Studies should be carried out in the formulation stage before the final composition of a polypill may be established. Thus, it was found in thermochemical studies that both compounds present no chemical interactions in an equimolar mixture of solid samples at room temperature. Theoretical studies were employed to determine possible interactions between fenofibrate and simvastatin. A very weak intramolecular hydrogen bond is formed between the hydroxyl group (O5H5) of the simvastatin with chlorine and carbonyl group (C11O4, C1O2) of the fenofibrate molecule. These weak energy hydrogen bonds have no effect on the chemical stability of the compounds studied. The results were obtained using Density Functional Theory methods; particularly the BPE1BPE and B3LYP functional and 6-31++G** basis set. The values of energy show good approximation when are compared with similar calculations previously reported. Infrared spectra of monomers and dimers were obtained via theoretical calculations.
Theoretical considerations for SRAM total-dose hardening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Francis, P.; Flandre, D.; Colinge, J.P.
1995-01-01
The theoretical hardness against total dose of the six-transistor SRAM cell is investigated in detail. An explicit analytical expression of the maximum tolerable threshold voltage shift is derived for two cross-coupled inverters. A numerical method is used to explore the hardness of the read and write operations. Both N- and P-channel access transistors designs are considered and their respective advantages are compared. The study points out that the radiation hardness mainly relies on the technology. Results obtained with the very robust Gate-All-Around process are finally presented
Thermodynamics of nanoadsorption from solution: Theoretical and experimental research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, Yan-Zhen; Xue, Yong-Qiang; Cui, Zi-Xiang; Wang, Yan
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The thermodynamic theory of nanoadsorption was proposed. • The thermodynamic relations of nanoadsorption were derived. • The results of the experiments are accord with the theory. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of nanoparticle size on adsorption thermodynamics was investigated. The results of theoretical and experimental studies show that particle size significantly affects the equilibrium constant and thermodynamic properties of nanoadsorption. Relationships between the equilibrium constant, thermodynamic properties and particle size were derived using the thermodynamic theory of nanoadsorption. The equilibrium constant and thermodynamic properties were obtained by investigating the adsorption of Cu 2+ onto different sizes of nano-ZnO and the adsorption of Ag + onto different sizes of nano-TiO 2 . Good agreement was achieved between results obtained by experiments and predicted by theoretical analyses. The equilibrium constant and the molar Gibbs free energy of nanoadsorption were found to increase with smaller nanoparticle size. However, the effects of particle size on the molar enthalpy and the molar entropy are uncertain. In addition, the molar Gibbs free energy, the molar enthalpy, the molar entropy and the logarithm of the equilibrium constant are linearly related to the reciprocal of the diameter of the nanoparticle. The thermodynamic properties revealed in this study may provide important guidelines for research and application in the field of nanoadsorption
Multiple-walled BN nanotubes obtained with a mechanical alloying technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosas, G.; Sistos, J.; Ascencio, J.A.; Medina, A.; Perez, R.
2005-01-01
An experimental method to obtain multiple-walled nanotubes of BN using low energy is presented. The method is based on the use of mechanical alloying techniques with elemental boron powders and nitrogen gas mixed in an autoclave at room temperature. The chemical and structural characteristics of the multiple-walled nanotubes were obtained using different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, EELS microanalysis, high-resolution electron microscopy images and theoretical simulations based on the multisliced approach of the electron diffraction theory. This investigation clearly illustrates the production of multiple-wall BN nanotubes at room temperature. These results open up a new kind of synthesis method with low expense and important perspectives for use in large-quantity production. (orig.)
Theoretical study of heat transfer with moving phase-change interface in thawing of frozen food
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leung, M; Ching, W H; Leung, D Y C; Lam, G C K
2005-01-01
A theoretical solution was obtained for a transient phase-change heat transfer problem in thawing of frozen food. In the physical model, a sphere originally at a uniform temperature below the phase-change temperature is suddenly immersed in a fluid at a temperature above the phase-change temperature. As the body temperature increases, the phase-change interface will be first formed on the surface. Subsequently, the interface will absorb the latent heat and move towards the centre until the whole body undergoes complete phase change. In the mathematical formulation, the nonhomogeneous problem arises from the moving phase-change interface. The solution in terms of the time-dependent temperature field was obtained by use of Green's function. A one-step Newton-Raphson method was specially designed to solve for the position of the moving interface to satisfy the interface condition. The theoretical results were compared with numerical results generated by a finite difference model and experimental measurements collected from a cold water thawing process. As a good agreement was found, the theoretical solution developed in this study was verified numerically and experimentally. Besides thawing of frozen food, there are many other practical applications of the theoretical solution, such as food freezing, soil freezing/thawing, metal casting and bath quenching heat treatment, among others
Theoretical study of heat transfer with moving phase-change interface in thawing of frozen food
Leung, M.; Ching, W. H.; Leung, D. Y. C.; Lam, G. C. K.
2005-02-01
A theoretical solution was obtained for a transient phase-change heat transfer problem in thawing of frozen food. In the physical model, a sphere originally at a uniform temperature below the phase-change temperature is suddenly immersed in a fluid at a temperature above the phase-change temperature. As the body temperature increases, the phase-change interface will be first formed on the surface. Subsequently, the interface will absorb the latent heat and move towards the centre until the whole body undergoes complete phase change. In the mathematical formulation, the nonhomogeneous problem arises from the moving phase-change interface. The solution in terms of the time-dependent temperature field was obtained by use of Green's function. A one-step Newton-Raphson method was specially designed to solve for the position of the moving interface to satisfy the interface condition. The theoretical results were compared with numerical results generated by a finite difference model and experimental measurements collected from a cold water thawing process. As a good agreement was found, the theoretical solution developed in this study was verified numerically and experimentally. Besides thawing of frozen food, there are many other practical applications of the theoretical solution, such as food freezing, soil freezing/thawing, metal casting and bath quenching heat treatment, among others.
Energy confinement time and tokamak ignition - a theoretical viewpoint
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigmar, D.J.; Hsu, C.T.
1989-01-01
A rigorous approach developed earlier to obtain the global energy confinement time from theory based local thermal transport coefficients is applied to investigate the approach to thermonuclear fusion in the tokamak. Theory leads naturally to a generalized 'offset' form for the global energy confinement time. The limitations of the theoretical paradigm presented here are discussed and specific ignition contour results for a large 5 Tesla and 12 Tesla ignition experiment are given. (orig.) [de
Theoretical and numerical analysis of auxiliary heating for cryogenic target fabrication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xiaohu; Tian Chenglin; Yin Yan; Xu Han; Zhuo Hongbin
2008-01-01
In order to compensate for the nonspherical-symmetric heat flux in the hohlraum, auxiliary heating is usually applied to the outside wall of the hohlraum during the cooling process. A one-dimensional heat exchange theoretical model has been proposed in the indirect-drive target, to analyze the required auxiliary heat flux. With a two dimensional axisymmetric model, the auxiliary heating mechanism has been simulated by FLUENT code. The optimum heat flux which is 635 W/m 2 has been obtained as the heaters around the outside of the hohlraum about 1.3 mm above and below the mid-plane. The result is in good agreement with the theoretical model. (authors)
Deep-sequencing protocols influence the results obtained in small-RNA sequencing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joern Toedling
Full Text Available Second-generation sequencing is a powerful method for identifying and quantifying small-RNA components of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of the choice of sequencing platform and library preparation protocol on the results obtained. We present a thorough comparison of small-RNA sequencing libraries generated from the same embryonic stem cell lines, using different sequencing platforms, which represent the three major second-generation sequencing technologies, and protocols. We have analysed and compared the expression of microRNAs, as well as populations of small RNAs derived from repetitive elements. Despite the fact that different libraries display a good correlation between sequencing platforms, qualitative and quantitative variations in the results were found, depending on the protocol used. Thus, when comparing libraries from different biological samples, it is strongly recommended to use the same sequencing platform and protocol in order to ensure the biological relevance of the comparisons.
Supplement to final report for ''Theoretical studies in tokamaks''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McBride, J.B.
1992-07-01
In a previous report we summarized the results obtained for Task I of Contract Number AC03-88ER53270 for the two-year period of performance of the work supported by the contract. That report constituted the final report for Task 1. Since then, the contract was extended and the funding for Task I was incremented with $35K of new funds. The purpose for incrementing the contract was to begin a collaboration with the PBX-M group at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in the area of ion Bernstein wave (IBW) effects in the PBX-M experiment. This report summarizes the initial results of that collaboration obtained under the incremental continuation funding. In the intervening period, experimental and theoretical program directions changed so that no further funds were committed to Task 1
Theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX cycle cooling system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez, V.H.; Vidal, A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria, Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Best, R.; Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Velazquez, N. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Calle de la Normal S/N, Insurgentes Este, 21280 Mexicali, BC (Mexico)
2008-06-15
A theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX-Prototype Cooling System (GAX-PCS), using ammonia-water as the working fluid, is presented. The GAX-PCS was designed for a cooling capacity of 10.6 kW (3 tons). A simulation model was developed, calibrated and validated with experimental values in order to predict the performance of the system outside the design parameters. Experimental results were obtained using thermal oil, at temperatures from 180 to 195 C, as heating source. An internal heat recovery in the system of {proportional_to}55% with respect to the total heat supplied in the generator was obtained. Also the performance of the GAX absorption system, integrated to a micro gas turbine (MGT) as a cogeneration system was simulated. Overall efficiencies for the cogeneration system from 29% to 49% were obtained for cooling loads from 5 kW to 20 kW, respectively. With the theoretical and experimental study of the proposed cycle, it is concluded that the GAX-PCS presents potential to compete technically in the Mexican air conditioning market. (author)
Theoretical model for cavitation erosion prediction in centrifugal pump impeller
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rayan, M.A.; Mahgob, M.M.; Mostafa, N.H.
1990-01-01
Cavitation is known to have great effects on pump hydraulic and mechanical characteristics. These effects are mainly described by deviation in pump performance, increasing vibration and noise level as well as erosion of blade and casing materials. In the present work, only the hydrodynamic aspect of cavitation was considered. The efforts were directed toward the study of cavitation inception, cavity mechanics and material erosion in order to clarify the macrohydrodynamic aspects of cavitation erosive wear in real machines. As a result of this study, it was found that cavitation damage can be predicted from model data. The obtained theoretical results show good agreement with the experimental results obtained in this investigation and with results of some other investigations. The application of the findings of this work will help the design engineer in predicting the erosion rate, according to the different operating conditions. (author)
The obtaining of giant laser pulses by optical pumping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briquet, Georges
1970-12-01
From coherent pumping studies a laser of short pulse duration was developed. Further study of laser effects in organic substances was envisaged. The first part of the work yielded awaited results, and led to the development of a single mode emitter (due to the small dimensions of the cavity). The principles of laser action were enumerated and the relative parameters defined. Various methods of obtaining pulses were discussed; the reasons behind the particular choice mode were given. A theoretical study was then made leading to the establishment of the fundamental equations defining the pulse formation process. An important part of the test deals with technical implications and the experimental results, which have arisen. The conclusion reviews possible applications. (author) [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saverio Maietta
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Experimental/theoretical analyses have already been performed on poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL loaded with organic–inorganic fillers (PCL/TiO2 and PCL/ZrO2 to find a correlation between the results from the small punch test and Young’s modulus of the materials. PCL loaded with Ti2 (PCL = 12, TiO2 = 88 wt % and Zr2 (PCL = 12, ZrO2 = 88 wt % hybrid fillers showed better performances than those obtained for the other particle composition. In this context, the aim of current research is to provide further insight into the mechanical properties of PCL loaded with sol–gel-synthesized organic–inorganic hybrid fillers for bone tissue engineering. For this reason, theoretical analyses were performed by the finite element method. The results from the small punch test and Young’s modulus of the materials were newly correlated. The obtained values of Young’s modulus (193 MPa for PCL, 378 MPa for PCL/Ti2 and 415 MPa for PCL/Zr2 were higher than those obtained from a previous theoretical modelling (144 MPa for PCL, 282 MPa for PCL/Ti2 and 310 MPa for PCL/Zr2. This correlation will be an important step for the evaluation of Young’s modulus, starting from the small punch test data.
Summary of personal neutron dosemeter results obtained within the EVIDOS project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Reginatto, M.; Schuhmacher, H.; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Lacoste, V.; Boschung, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Coeck, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Curzio, G.; Errico d', F.; Kylloenen, J.-E.; Lindborg, L.; Bartlett, D.; Tanner, R.
2005-01-01
Full text: Within the EC project EVIDOS ('Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields'), different types of neutron personal dosemeters were irradiated in workplace fields in nuclear installations in Europe. Mostly electronic personal neutron dosemeters were tested, among them commercial devices (Thermo Electron EPD-N, Aloka PDM-313), devices from first industrial prototype series (Thermo Electron EPD-N2, Saphydose-n) and laboratory prototypes which were already in the stage of lightweight battery-operated instruments (PTB DOS-2002). In addition, dosemeters with (almost) immediate readout (BTI bubble detectors, Rados DIS-N) and passive dosemeters which needed no fielddependent calibration factors (PADC track detectors from PSI and NRPB) were used, as well as those TLD albedo dosemeters which are routinely used in the facilities visited. The results of measurements obtained within the EVIDOS project in workplace fields in nuclear installations in Europe, i.e. at Kruemmel (boiling water reactor, transport cask), at Mol (Venus research reactor, fuel facility Belgonucleaire) and at Ringhals (pressurized water reactor, transport cask) are presented and compared to reference values of personal dose equivalent H p (10) determined by means of Bonner spheres and novel directional spectrometers. In fields with strong back-scatter and moderation of neutrons, several dosemeters showed overreadings by more than a factor of two. In strongly directed fields with neutron dose equivalent peaked at about 1 MeV (MOX fuel), the same dosemeters showed under-readings of about a factor of two. These under- and over-readings in the workplace fields can be explained in terms of the dosemeter response functions for mono-energetic neutrons, which show over-responses in the thermal and intermediate neutron energy region and under-responses at about 1 MeV neutron energy. The dosemeter readings obtained in the workplace fields were checked for consistency by
Plasmon holographic experiments: theoretical framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verbeeck, J.; Dyck, D. van; Lichte, H.; Potapov, P.; Schattschneider, P.
2005-01-01
A theoretical framework is described to understand the results of plasmon holography experiments leading to insight in the meaning of the experimental results and pointing out directions for future experiments. The framework is based on the formalism of mutual intensity to describe how coherence is transferred through an optical system. For the inelastic interaction with the object, an expression for the volume plasmon excitations in a free electron gas is used as a model for the behaviour of aluminium. The formalism leads to a clear graphical intuitive tool for understanding the experiments. It becomes evident that the measured coherence is solely related to the angular distribution of the plasmon scattering in the case of bulk plasmons. After describing the framework, the special case of coherence outside a spherical particle is treated and the seemingly controversial idea of a plasmon with a limited coherence length obtained from experiments is clarified
Spectroscopic Analysis of Neurotransmitters: A Theoretical and Experimental Raman Study
Alonzo, Matthew
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was applied to investigate the feasibility in the detection and monitoring of the dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter adsorbed onto silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at 10-11 molar, a concentration far below physiological levels. In addition, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were obtained with the Gaussian-09 analytical suite software to generate the theoretical molecular configuration of DA in its neutral, cationic, anionic, and dopaminequinone states for the conversion of computer-simulated Raman spectra. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results show good agreement and imply the presence of dopamine in all of its molecular forms in the experimental setting. The dominant dopamine Raman bands at 750 cm-1 and 795 cm-1 suggest the adsorption of dopaminequinone onto the silver nanoparticle surface. The results of this experiment give good insight into the applicability of using Raman spectroscopy for the biodetection of neurotransmitters.
New dynamics information from experimental results obtained in d-Au collisions at RHIC-BNL energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jipa, Alexandru
2004-01-01
During the last runs d-Au collisions at √s NN = 200 GeV have been investigated at RHIC-BNL using the BRAHMS Experiment. Some interesting experimental results on charged particle multiplicities, rapidity distributions, transverse momentum spectra, antiparticle to particle ratios, participant spectator evolution have been obtained. In this work the most interesting results are presented for different rapidity and collision centrality ranges. Taking into account the importance of the collision geometry and collision symmetry in the collision dynamics, comparisons with the similar experimental results obtained in Au-Au collisions have been done. New interesting results can be reported. The most significant are related to the evolution of the nuclear modification factor with rapidity and collision centrality. The high transverse momentum suppression and the behaviours in different rapidity and centrality ranges suggest strong initial state effects. These effects could be related to the gluonic structure of the colliding nuclei. Some insights on the Color Glass Condensate formation are possible. (author)
Evaluation of group theoretical characteristics using the symbolic manipulation language MAPLE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taneri, U.; Paldus, J.
1994-01-01
Relying on theoretical developments exploiting quasispin and the pseudo-orthogonal group in the Hubbard model of cyclic polyenes, the general expressions for generating polynomials, providing the dimensional information for relevant irreducible representations, were derived. These generating polynomials result from 1-dimensional formulas through rather tedious algebraic manipulations involving ratios of polynomials with fractional powers. It is shown that these expressions may be efficiently handled using the symbolic manipulation language MAPLE and the dimensional information for an arbitrary spin, isospin, and quasimomentum obtained. Exploitation of symbolic computation for other group theoretical problems that are relevant in quantum chemical calculations and their relationship with Guassian polynomial based combinatorial approaches is also briefly addressed and various possible applications outlined
Theoretical model simulations for the global Thermospheric Mapping Study (TMS) periods
Rees, D.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.
Theoretical and semiempirical models of the solar UV/EUV and of the geomagnetic driving forces affecting the terrestrial mesosphere and thermosphere have been used to generate a series of representative numerical time-dependent and global models of the thermosphere, for the range of solar and geoamgnetic activity levels which occurred during the three Thermospheric Mapping Study periods. The simulations obtained from these numerical models are compared with observations, and with the results of semiempirical models of the thermosphere. The theoretical models provide a record of the magnitude of the major driving forces which affected the thermosphere during the study periods, and a baseline against which the actual observed structure and dynamics can be compared.
Molecular engineering of polymer alloys: A final report of results obtained on CRADA No. 1078
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curro, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schweizer, K.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Honeycutt, J.D. [BIOSYM Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States)
1995-12-01
This report summarizes the technical progress made in the past three years on CRADA No. 1078, Molecular Engineering of Polymer Alloys. The thrust of this CRADA was to start with the basic ideas of PRISM theory and develop it to the point where it could be applied to modeling of polymer alloys. In this program, BIOSYM, Sandia and the University of Illinois worked jointly to develop the theoretical techniques and numerical formalisms necessary to implement the theoretical ideas into commercial software aimed at molecular engineering of polymer alloys. This CRADA focused on developing the techniques required to make the transition from theory to practice. These techniques were then used by BIOSYM to incorporate PRISM theory and other new developments into their commercial software.
Theoretical analysis of recirculation zone and buffer zone in the ADS windowless spallation target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Jie; Pan, Chang-zhao; Tong, Jian-fei; Lu, Wen-qiang
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Height of recirculation zone is very important in windowless target design. • A theoretical formula for the height is derived based on the Bernoulli equation. • Numerical simulation for the LBE is performed and the height of recirculation zone is also obtained. • The theoretically-derived simulation-predicted recirculation zone heights agree with each other very well and the theoretical derivation is proved to be correct. - Abstract: The thermo-hydraulic analysis including reduction of the height of recirculation zone and stability of the free surface is very important in the design and optimization of ADS windowless spallation targets. In the present study, the Bernoulli equation is used to analyze the entire flow process in the target. Formulae for the height of the recirculation zone and the buffer zone are both obtained explicitly. Furthermore, numerical simulation for the heavy metal lead–bismuth eutectic liquid and vapor with cavitation phase change is also performed, and a novel method to calculate the height of the recirculation zone is put forward. By comparison of the theoretical formulae and numerical results, it is clearly shown that they agree with each other very well, and the heights predicted by the two methods are both determined by their own upstream flow parameters
Deviations between experimental and theoretical results in Ar (e, 3e) double ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, C C; Lahmam-Bennani, A; Cappello, C Dal; Duguet, A; Avaldi, L
2003-01-01
The coplanar (e, 3e) relative cross sections for double ionization of argon have been measured at an electron impact energy of E 0 = 561.4 eV and under equal energy sharing among the two 'ejected' electrons, E b = E c = 9 eV. The scattering angle is fixed to θ a = 1.5 degrees, corresponding to a momentum transfer K=0.4 au to the target. The experimental results have been compared with calculations in the first Born approximation, which include only first-order processes in the target-projectile interaction. The comparison shows severe deviations between the experimental and theoretical results. These deviations are much larger than the ones previously observed in helium under comparable kinematics. To fill this gap between theory and experiment, a decisive improvement in the theory is needed. This can be achieved by improving the first-order calculations and by including higher-order processes such as the two-step mechanism, or even new mechanisms, for instance the simultaneous ejection of the pair of target electrons. (letter to the editor)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez, Adlin; Gonzalez, Joaquin; Torres, Leonel; Fraxedas, Roberto; Varela, Consuelo; Freixas, Vivian.
2008-01-01
Full text: Using national and international recommendation about human resource in nuclear medicine, a group of experts organized a national course for the education and training of physicist who works in Cuban hospital, adapted to national condition and practice of nuclear medicine. The program was approved for National Authorities in Nuclear Security and University School in Medicine and content three intensive theoretic and practical courses (15 days of full time duration each), complemented with 4 months full time in Nuclear Medicine Service monitored by accredited expert and 2 months at distance with practical task. The theoretical/practical intensive courses have final evaluation: combining practical exercise and write final test. When all docent activities finish the students should pass a final evaluation by a testing board composed for (at least) three accredited experts. The first theoretical/practical course included 19 physicists who work in hospital, the second 17 and the third 16 students. With 100 point of maximum score and 60 point minimum to pass, the partial final tests included: true or false choice (with 10 aspects to verify, 1 point/correct answer) and questions to write developed answer. The average result was 83.02 points/ students (range 65-100 points). The students evaluated satisfactory the quality of different courses (in anonymous poll), reporting like very good; the quality of conferences, excellent; the usefulness of different charters, very good; the support bibliography, and recommended the repetition of this kind of education and training in order to warranty the human resource, in the same way and content, and included others item in the future. Conclusion: the theoretical/practice intensive courses of this post-graduated course were successful and satisfied the objective of education and training of medical physicist in nuclear medicine. (author)
Inhalation of nanoplatelets - Theoretical deposition simulations.
Sturm, Robert
2017-12-01
Primary objective of the contribution was the theoretical prediction of nanoplatelet deposition in the human respiratory tract. Modeling was founded on the hypothetical inhalation of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) measuring 0.01 and 0.1μm in thickness and adopting a projected area diameter of 1-30μm. Particle uptake was assumed to take place with inhalation flow rates of 250, 500, 750, and 1000cm 3 s -1 , respectively. For an appropriate description of pulmonary particle behavior, transport of GNP in a stochastic lung structure and deposition formulae based on analytical and numerical studies were presupposed. The results obtained from the theoretical approach clearly demonstrate that GNP with a thickness of 0.01μm deposit in the respiratory tract by 20-50%, whereas GNP with a thickness of 0.1μm exhibit a deposition of 20-90%. Larger platelets deposit with higher probability than small ones. Increase of inhalation flow rate is accompanied by decreased deposition in the case of thin GNP, whilst thicker GNP are preferably accumulated in the extrathoracic region. Generation-specific deposition ranges from 0.05 to 7% (0.01μm) and from 0.05 to 9%, with maximum values being obtained in airway generation 20. In proximal airway generations (0-10), deposition is increased with inhalation flow rate, whereas in intermediate to distal generations a reverse effect may be observed. Health consequences of GNP deposition in different lung compartments are subjected to an intense debate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Theoretical information measurement in nonrelativistic time-dependent approach
Najafizade, S. A.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.
2018-02-01
The information-theoretic measures of time-dependent Schrödinger equation are investigated via the Shannon information entropy, variance and local Fisher quantities. In our calculations, we consider the two first states n = 0,1 and obtain the position Sx (t) and momentum Sp (t) Shannon entropies as well as Fisher information Ix (t) in position and momentum Ip (t) spaces. Using the Fourier transformed wave function, we obtain the results in momentum space. Some interesting features of the information entropy densities ρs (x,t) and γs (p,t), as well as the probability densities ρ (x,t) and γ (p,t) for time-dependent states are demonstrated. We establish a general relation between variance and Fisher's information. The Bialynicki-Birula-Mycielski inequality is tested and verified for the states n = 0,1.
Optimal pacing strategy: from theoretical modelling to reality in 1500-m speed skating.
Hettinga, F J; De Koning, J J; Schmidt, L J I; Wind, N A C; Macintosh, B R; Foster, C
2011-01-01
Athletes are trained to choose the pace which is perceived to be correct during a specific effort, such as the 1500-m speed skating competition. The purpose of the present study was to "override" self-paced (SP) performance by instructing athletes to execute a theoretically optimal pacing profile. Seven national-level speed-skaters performed a SP 1500-m which was analysed by obtaining velocity (every 100 m) and body position (every 200 m) with video to calculate total mechanical power output. Together with gross efficiency and aerobic kinetics, obtained in separate trials, data were used to calculate aerobic and anaerobic power output profiles. An energy flow model was applied to SP, simulating a range of pacing strategies, and a theoretically optimal pacing profile was imposed in a second race (IM). Final time for IM was ∼2 s slower than SP. Total power distribution per lap differed, with a higher power over the first 300 m for IM (637.0 (49.4) vs 612.5 (50.0) W). Anaerobic parameters did not differ. The faster first lap resulted in a higher aerodynamic drag coefficient and perhaps a less effective push-off. Experienced athletes have a well-developed performance template, and changing pacing strategy towards a theoretically optimal fast start protocol had negative consequences on speed-skating technique and did not result in better performance.
Theoretical and experimental study of an energy-reinforced braking radiation photon beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertin, Pierre-Yves
1966-01-01
This research thesis reports the theoretical study of a photon beam raised towards high energies, its experimental implementation, the definition of a gamma spectrometry method which aimed at checking various hypotheses used in the beam theoretical study. After a presentation of the theory of phenomena of electron braking radiation, of materialisation of photons into positon-negaton pair, and of issues related to multiple Coulomb diffusion, the author reports the study of the different solutions which allow a photon beam to be obtained. A braking radiation of mono-kinetic electron has been used. This braking radiation is reinforced by absorption of low energy protons in a column of lithium hydride. The author describes how the beam is built up, and the experimental approach. He describes how raw data are processed to get rid of the influence of the multiple Coulomb diffusion and of the braking radiation. Experimental results are compared with those obtained by convolution of photon spectra and differential cross section
A theoretical interpretation of EPR and ENDOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matos, M.O.M. de.
1975-08-01
To interpret the EPR and ENDOR results of the U 2 center in SrF 2 , two wavefunctions are proposed to describe the unpaired electron of the defect. Use is made of two different models in order to obtain the wavefunctions: the Heitler-London and that of molecular orbitals models. The Pauli repulsion (overlap of wavefunctions) is discussed as well as covalency mechanisms and their influence in the calculation of the hyperfine constants due to magnetic interaction of the unpaired electron and the magnetic nucleus of the cristal. A small amount of covalency between the ground state of the interstitial Hydrogen atom and the 2p shell of the F - ions of the first cristaline shell is introduced fenomenologically in the molecular orbitals model. Both methods are discussed by comparing the theoretical calculations of the hyperfine constants with the measured experimental values obtained with the EPR and ENDOR techniques. (Author) [pt
Lambing results obtained with imported Ile de France rarn semen
African Journals Online (AJOL)
insemination was carried out either 54,5 h (fixed time single ... Table 1 Conception rate obtained using two batches of frozen lle de France ... Pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (Fostim, 300 ... Effect of initial freezing temperature, addition.
Low-Temperature Experimental and Theoretical Rate Constants for the O(1D) + H2 Reaction.
Hickson, Kevin M; Suleimanov, Yury V
2017-03-09
In the present joint experimental and theoretical study, we report thermal rate constants for the O( 1 D) + H 2 reaction within the 50-300 K temperature range. Experimental kinetics measurements were performed using a continuous supersonic flow reactor coupled with pulsed laser photolysis for O( 1 D) production and pulsed laser-induced fluorescence in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength range (VUV LIF) for O( 1 D) detection. Theoretical rate constants were obtained using the ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) approach over the two lowest potential energy surfaces 1 1 A' and 1 1 A″, which possess barrierless and thermally activated energy profiles, respectively. Both the experimental and theoretical rate constants exhibit a weak temperature dependence. The theoretical results show the dominant role of the 1 1 A' ground state and that contribution of the 1 1 A″ excited state to the total thermal rate decreases dramatically at lower temperature. Agreement between the experimental and theoretical results is good, and the discrepancy does not exceed 25%. It is argued that these differences are likely to be due to nonadiabatic couplings between the 1 1 A' and 2 1 A' surfaces.
Çırak, Çağrı; Demir, Selçuk; Ucun, Fatih; Çubuk, Osman
2011-08-01
Experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of β-2-aminopyridinium dihydrogenphosphate (β-2APDP) have been investigated. The FT-IR spectrum of β-2APDP was recorded in the region 4000-400 cm -1. The optimized molecular structure and theoretical vibrational frequencies of β-2APDP have been investigated using ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) and theoretical frequencies have been compared with the corresponding experimental data and it is found that they agree well with each other. All the assignments of the theoretical frequencies were performed by potential energy distributions using VEDA 4 program. Furthermore, the used scale factors were obtained from the ratio of the frequency values of the strongest peaks in the experimental and theoretical IR spectra. From the results it was concluded that the B3LYP method is superior to the HF method for the vibrational frequencies.
Theoretical Study on the Dynamic Behavior of Pipes Conveying Gas-Liquid Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrique Ortiz-Vidal L.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of clamped-clamped straight pipes conveying gas-liquid two-phase flow is theoretically investigated, specifically the effect of the flow parameters on the frequency of the system. First, the equation of motion is derived based on the classic Païdoussis formulation. Assuming Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, small-deflection approximation and no-slip homogeneous model, a coupled fluid-structure fourth-order partial differential equation (PDE is obtained. Then, the equation of motion is rendered dimensionless and discretized through Galerkin’s method. That method transforms the PDE into a set of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs. The system frequency is obtained by solving the system of ODEs by allowing the determinant to be equal to zero. System frequencies for different geometries, structural properties and flow conditions have been calculated. The results show that the system frequency decreases with increasing two-phase flow velocity. By contrast, the former increases with increasing homogeneous void fraction. These theoretical results are in agreement with experimental findings reported in the literature. Furthermore, even for typical two phase flow conditions, the system can become unstable for inadequate chooses of geometry or material of the pipe.
Preliminary results obtained from a dense plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinman, S.; Sinman, A.
1982-01-01
In this study, for the data processing in our Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) system, a multiparameters numerical hierarchy obtained from the fundamental equations based on the snowplows model and its conclusions have been developed. Evaluating the data along the transients of the total plasma current, the anode current and the focus voltage recorded by an oscilloscope, they have been possible to determine the time domain plasma parameters such as the shock thickness, the sheath temperature, velocity and electron density, the pressure at the focus phase and the plasma temperature. Besides, the dissipated energy through the focus notch or in other words, the plasma temperature has also been calculated by means of the numerical integration. In the text, a performance chart together with some other correlation curves for the optimization of the DPF systems are submitted and discussed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escobar, C. O. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab; Tilly, E. [Sewanee U.
2018-03-19
After a short review of previous attempts to observe and measure the near-infrared scintillation in liquid argon, we present new results obtained with NIR, a dedicated cryostat at the Fermilab Proton Assembly Building (PAB). The new results give confidence that the near-infrared light can be used as the much needed light signal in large liquid argon time projection chambers.11 pages,
The hardness of synthetic products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts (in Romanian
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela Ogrean
2001-04-01
Full Text Available The Hardness of Synthetic Products Obtained from Cooled and Crystallized Basaltic Melts. Hardness is one of the main properties of the products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts under a controlled thermal regime. It influences the abrasion tear resistance of the resulted material. The microhardness measurements on the samples (bricks, boards, gutters, armour plates, tubes indicated Vickers hardness value between 757–926 for the materials obtained from Şanovita basalts (Timiş district and between 539–958 respectively, in case of the Racoş basalts (Braşov district. There is a certain variation of the hardness within the same sample, in various measurement points, within the theoretical limits of the hardnesses of the pyroxenes and that of the spinels.
Absorption of negative pions resting on nuclei of the 1p layer. Theoretical and experimental aspects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coupat, Bernard
1981-01-01
As the probability of capture of π- resting on 12 C with emission of a single proton which has been measured on the Saclay Linear Accelerator (ALS), is relatively high, it was obvious that this reaction type was based on a mechanism involving two nucleons. Due to the lack of theoretical interpretation for the emission of a single nucleon, a model has been developed in which the pion is absorbed by a correlated proton-proton pair, only one of these both protons being emitted. The first part of this research thesis addresses the calculation of absorption on a pair of nucleons with emission of these nucleons. It comprises the detailed presentation of the theoretical model, its comparison with other published calculations, and the comparison with results obtained by experiments of emission of nucleon pairs from carbon and oxygen. The second part proposes an overview of the great number of experimental results obtained by capture of π- resting on carbon. It reports the measurement of the emission of a single nucleon, the presentation of the elaborated theoretical model which has been developed to interpret this measurement. The author also compares the results of his calculation with the experimentally measured probability for the (π - p) process and the results published on the measurement of the (π - n).reaction [fr
Stöltzner, Michael
Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.
da Silva, Jorge Alberto Valle; Modesto-Costa, Lucas; de Koning, Martijn C.; Borges, Itamar; França, Tanos Celmar Costa
2018-01-01
In this work, quaternary and non-quaternary oximes designed to bind at the peripheral site of acetylcholinesterase previously inhibited by organophosphates were investigated theoretically. Some of those oximes have a large number of degrees of freedom, thus requiring an accurate method to obtain molecular geometries. For this reason, the density functional theory (DFT) was employed to refine their molecular geometries after conformational analysis and to compare their 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) theoretical signals in gas-phase and in solvent. A good agreement with experimental data was achieved and the same theoretical approach was employed to obtain the geometries in water environment for further studies.
A theoretical study of hot plasma spheroids in the presence of low-frequency electromagnetic waves
Ahmadizadeh, Y.; Jazi, B.; Barjesteh, S.
2016-07-01
While taking into account thermal motion of electrons, scattering of electromagnetic waves with low frequency from hot plasma spheroids is investigated. In this theoretical research, ions are heavy to respond to electromagnetic fluctuations. The solution of scalar wave equation in spheroidal coordinates for electric potential inside the plasma spheroids are obtained. The variations of resonance frequencies vs. Debye length are studied and consistency between the obtained results in this paper and the results for the well-known plasma objects such as plasma column and spherical plasma have been proved.
Experimental and theoretical studies of near-ground acoustic radiation propagation in the atmosphere
Belov, Vladimir V.; Burkatovskaya, Yuliya B.; Krasnenko, Nikolai P.; Rakov, Aleksandr S.; Rakov, Denis S.; Shamanaeva, Liudmila G.
2017-11-01
Results of experimental and theoretical studies of the process of near-ground propagation of monochromatic acoustic radiation on atmospheric paths from a source to a receiver taking into account the contribution of multiple scattering on fluctuations of atmospheric temperature and wind velocity, refraction of sound on the wind velocity and temperature gradients, and its reflection by the underlying surface for different models of the atmosphere depending the sound frequency, coefficient of reflection from the underlying surface, propagation distance, and source and receiver altitudes are presented. Calculations were performed by the Monte Carlo method using the local estimation algorithm by the computer program developed by the authors. Results of experimental investigations under controllable conditions are compared with theoretical estimates and results of analytical calculations for the Delany-Bazley impedance model. Satisfactory agreement of the data obtained confirms the correctness of the suggested computer program.
Tesla Coil Theoretical Model and its Experimental Verification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Voitkans Janis
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a theoretical model of Tesla coil operation is proposed. Tesla coil is described as a long line with distributed parameters in a single-wire form, where the line voltage is measured across electrically neutral space. By applying the principle of equivalence of single-wire and two-wire schemes an equivalent two-wire scheme can be found for a single-wire scheme and the already known long line theory can be applied to the Tesla coil. A new method of multiple reflections is developed to characterize a signal in a long line. Formulas for calculation of voltage in Tesla coil by coordinate and calculation of resonance frequencies are proposed. The theoretical calculations are verified experimentally. Resonance frequencies of Tesla coil are measured and voltage standing wave characteristics are obtained for different output capacities in the single-wire mode. Wave resistance and phase coefficient of Tesla coil is obtained. Experimental measurements show good compliance with the proposed theory. The formulas obtained in this paper are also usable for a regular two-wire long line with distributed parameters.
EXPLOSIVE COMPACTION OF CLAD GRAPHITE POWDERS AND OBTAINING OF COATINGS ON THEIR BASE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
A. B. PEIKRISHIVILI; ET AL
2000-11-01
In order to consolidate graphite based powders and in order to obtain coatings with density values near to the theoretical ones clad graphite powders of the C{sub graphite} - Ni (C{sub g} - Ni) compositions were explosively compacted under different loading conditions. Theoretical calculations revealed that for assessing the stress-deformed state of C{sub g} - Ni compositions and computing the normal and tangent stress components (when V{sub D} < C{sub longitudinal} and V{sub D} < C{sub transversal}) it is recommended to apply the dynamic problem's solution model while the pressure impulse P = f(x) is being uniformly spread with constant rate along the boundary of a semi-infinite elastic body. The results of our experiments showed that it is possible to obtain high dense coatings from C{sub g}-Ni compositions bonded by an intermediate layer to the substrate material. The structure and properties of the coatings depends on the intensity of the shock loading and temperature. The effect of the shock loading conditions (temperature, loading intensity) on the structure, properties and structure/properties relationships for the C{sub g} - Ni coatings are discussed.
Sogukpinar, Haci; Bozkurt, Ismail
2018-02-01
Aerodynamic performance of the airfoil plays the most important role to obtain economically maximum efficiency from a wind turbine. Therefore airfoil should have an ideal aerodynamic shape. In this study, aerodynamic simulation of S809 airfoil is conducted and obtained result compared with previously made NASA experimental result and NREL theoretical data. At first, Lift coefficient, lift to drag ratio and pressure coefficient around S809 airfoil are calculated with SST turbulence model, and are compared with experimental and other theoretical data to correlate simulation correctness of the computational approaches. And result indicates good correlation with both experimental and theoretical data. This calculation point out that as the increasing relative velocity, lift to drag ratio increases. Lift to drag ratio attain maximum at the angle around 6 degree and after that starts to decrease again. Comparison shows that CFD code used in this calculation can predict aerodynamic properties of airfoil.
Analysis of bioactive glasses obtained by sol-gel processing for radioactive implants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Wanderley dos Santos
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the chemical and physical characterizations of SiO2 and SiO2-CaO bioactive glasses incorporated with samarium atoms, produced by sol-gel synthesis. The objective is to provide biocompatible and biodegradable radioactive seeds as an alternative to be used in Brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. The glasses were produced and analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, He picnometry and nitrogen adsorption analysis. A theoretical evaluation of the specific activity of the samples upon neutron activation is proposed. The XRF and EDS results demonstrate the incorporation of samarium atoms in the glass matrix. The experimental data coupled with the theoretical studies in neutron activation suggest that it is possible to obtain radioactive seeds with activities equivalent to 125I seeds used in brachytherapy prostatic.
Kozhina, T. D.; Kurochkin, A. V.
2016-04-01
The paper highlights results of the investigative tests of GTE compressor Ti-alloy blades obtained by the method of electrochemical machining with oscillating tool-electrodes, carried out in order to define the optimal parameters of the ECM process providing attainment of specified blade quality parameters given in the design documentation, while providing maximal performance. The new technological methods suggested based on the results of the tests; in particular application of vibrating tool-electrodes and employment of locating elements made of high-strength materials, significantly extend the capabilities of this method.
Results obtained on dileptons and prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roche, G.
1992-01-01
Experimental results (mostly from the DLS collaboration at LBL) and model calculations of dielectron production in pp/pd/pBe (1-5 GeV) and CaCa (1-2 GeV/A) are presented. Dileptons appear to be a suitable probe to approach in-medium properties of hadrons in nuclear matter. At the present time, the ρ/ω region looks the most promising. Oncoming programs are briefly presented, in particular the HADES project at GSI. 7 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Ki Bang
2009-01-01
A theoretical response of an electrostatic gap-closing actuator based on parallel plates to constant and low-frequency accelerations has been derived as a function of the applied acceleration and voltage. The nonlinear equation of motion is obtained in a dimensionless form from the fact that the inertial and damping forces are neglected at a frequency much less than the resonant frequency of the parallel plate, and thereafter the nonlinear equation is solved for the stable inter-plate gap at the acceleration and voltage. From the derived solution, the pull-in acceleration is obtained as a function of the applied voltage, and the pull-in voltage is also expressed as a function of the acceleration. The closed-form solution is validated by comparison with a numerical solution. The theoretical solution is in excellent agreement with the numerical results when the actuator is exposed to a constant acceleration as well as a low-frequency acceleration. The theoretical solution and pull-in acceleration and voltage thus provide guidance to prescribe operational constraints for devices that use the parallel plate actuator and to predict the response of the electrostatic gap-closing parallel plates to constant and low-frequency acceleration
Theoretical Study of the Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collector
Dr. Subhi S. Mahammed; Dr. Hameed J. Khalaf; Tadahmun A. Yassen
2012-01-01
Theoretical design of compound parabolic trough solar collector (CPC) without tracking is presented in this work. The thermal efficiency is obtained by using FORTRAN 90 program. The thermal efficiency is between (60-67)% at mass flow rate between (0.02-0.03) kg/s at concentration ratio of (3.8) without need to tracking system.The total and diffused radiation is calculated for Tikrit city by using theoretical equations. Good agreement between present work and the previous work.
First results obtained from the Cello liquid argon end cap calorimeters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Diberder, F.
1981-05-01
The Cello liquid argon calorimeter is presented in the first part of this thesis. The cryogenic system has to supply three cryostats filled with liquid argon: one cylindrical cryostat of 25 m 3 volume contains 2x8 separate modules; each of the two symmetric end cap cryostats contains two half cylindrical modules. Each module in the end cap part consists of 42 layers of lead strips interleaved with 43 full plates. The strips are alternatively vertical, horizontal and circular. In front of the lead calorimeter are 4 planes of copper foils glued on epoxy for dE/dx measurement. The electronics, signal processing and data acquisition system are described. In the second part, the performance and analysis of data measured by the end cap calorimeters are reported: study of Bhabha scattering e + e - → e + e - ; preliminary results obtained in two photon physics e + e - → e + e - γγ → e + e - X [fr
Theoretical characterization of the topology of connected carbon nanotubes in random networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heitz, Jerome; Leroy, Yann; Hebrard, Luc; Lallement, Christophe
2011-01-01
In recent years, a lot of attention has been paid to carbon nanotube (CNT) networks and their applications to electronic devices. Many studies concentrate on the percolation threshold and the characterization of the conduction in such materials. Nevertheless, no theoretical study has yet attempted to characterize the CNT features inside finite size CNT networks. We present a theoretical approach based on geometrical and statistical considerations. We demonstrate the possibility of explicitly determining some relations existing between two neighbor CNTs and their contact efficiency in random networks of identical CNTs. We calculate the contact probability of rigid identical CNTs and we obtain a probability of 0.2027, which turns out to be independent of the CNT density. Based on this probability, we establish also the dependence of the number of contacts per CNT as a function of the CNT density. All the theoretical results are validated by very good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations.
Chen, Hui; Cai, Li-Xun
2018-04-01
Based on the power-law stress-strain relation and equivalent energy principle, theoretical equations for converting between Brinell hardness (HB), Rockwell hardness (HR), and Vickers hardness (HV) were established. Combining the pre-existing relation between the tensile strength ( σ b ) and Hollomon parameters ( K, N), theoretical conversions between hardness (HB/HR/HV) and tensile strength ( σ b ) were obtained as well. In addition, to confirm the pre-existing σ b -( K, N) relation, a large number of uniaxial tensile tests were conducted in various ductile materials. Finally, to verify the theoretical conversions, plenty of statistical data listed in ASTM and ISO standards were adopted to test the robustness of the converting equations with various hardness and tensile strength. The results show that both hardness conversions and hardness-strength conversions calculated from the theoretical equations accord well with the standard data.
The pressure distribution for biharmonic transmitting array: theoretical study
Baranowska, A.
2005-03-01
The aim of the paper is theoretical analysis of the finite amplitude waves interaction problem for the biharmonic transmitting array. We assume that the array consists of 16 circular pistons of the same dimensions that regrouped in two sections. Two different arrangements of radiating elements were considered. In this situation the radiating surface is non-continuous without axial symmetry. The mathematical model was built on the basis of the Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya - Kuznetsov (KZK) equation. To solve the problem the finite-difference method was applied. On-axis pressure amplitude for different frequency waves as a function of distance from the source, transverse pressure distribution of these waves at fixed distances from the source and pressure amplitude distribution for them at fixed planes were examined. Especially changes of normalized pressure amplitude for difference frequency were studied. The paper presents mathematical model and some results of theoretical investigations obtained for different values of source parameters.
Theoretical Support of Heat Exchanger Experiments of the EU-CONGA Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herranz, L. E.; Lopez Jimenez, J.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Palomo, M. J.
1999-01-01
In this report the work carried out within the Work Package 5 of the CONGA project under the auspices of the European Union has been presented. Primarily focused on studying from a theoretical perspective the degradation of heat exchangers to be used in next generation of European reactor containments under accident conditions, and particularly the effect of aerosols, the objective has been met quite satisfactorily and the results can be summed up in three specific items: - A mathematical model of a mechanistic nature that has been encapsulated into a FORTRAN code (HTCFOUL) capable of simulating condensation heat transfer to a horizontal finned tube internally cooled. - A theoretical correlation depending upon non-dimensional variables and numbers which embodies most of the HTCFOUL physics and gives results not beyond 20% of actual HTCFOUL estimates. - A reasonable interpretation of the major measurements and observations obtained in the heat exchanger experiments performed within the Work Package 2 of the CONGA project. (Author) 55 refs
Theoretical study of the lowest-lying electronic states of Aluminium monoiodide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taher, F.; Kabbani, A.; Ani-El Houte, W.
2004-01-01
Full text.The spectroscopic study of Aluminium monohalides, especially the Aluminium monoiodide, is important for monitoring such species in high temperature fast-flow reactors. Theoretical calculations of AlI are not available, whereas several studies have been done for the other aluminium monohalides. In this work, CAS-SCF/MRCI calculations are performed for the lowest-lying electronic states of AlI in a range of internuclear distance between 2.30 A and 2.80 A. Ab-initio calculations have been effectuated by using the computational chemistry program Molpro. The basis set used in this study for aluminium atom is that used by Langhoff for aluminium monohalides, of contractions using atomic natural orbitals and a pseudopotential is used for iode. Accurate theoretical spectroscopic constants and potential curves are obtained for the ground state X 1 Σ + and the first excited states a 3 Π and A 1 Π. The calculated values of Te, ωe, ωexe and re of these states are compatible with the experimental results. An ordering of states is represented for the lowest five predicted singlet and lowest five predicted triplet states. These results provide a big support to determine the analogy in the ordering of the electronic states in AlF, AlBr and AlI respectively at lower energies. These theoretical results identify a set of electronic singlet and triplet states unobserved experimentally
Theoretical Study of the Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Subhi S. Mahammed
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Theoretical design of compound parabolic trough solar collector (CPC without tracking is presented in this work. The thermal efficiency is obtained by using FORTRAN 90 program. The thermal efficiency is between (60-67% at mass flow rate between (0.02-0.03 kg/s at concentration ratio of (3.8 without need to tracking system.The total and diffused radiation is calculated for Tikrit city by using theoretical equations. Good agreement between present work and the previous work.
Hydrogen storage in lithium hydride: A theoretical approach
Banger, Suman; Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.
2018-04-01
First principles calculations have been carried out to analyze structural stability of lithium hydride (LiH) in NaCl phase using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Calculations have been extended to physiosorbed H-atom compounds LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2. The obtained results are discussed in the paper. The results for LiH are in excellent agreement with earlier reported data. The obtained direct energy band gap of LiH is 3.0 eV which is in excellent agreement with earlier reported theoretical band gap. The electronic band structure plots of the hydrogen adsorbed compounds show metallic behavior. The elastic constants, anisotropy factor, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and cohesive energies of all the compounds are calculated. Calculation of the optical spectra such as the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, optical reflectivity, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient and electron energy loss are performed for the energy range 0-15 eV. The obtained results for LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2, are reported for the first time. This study has been made in search of materials for hydrogen storage. It is concluded that LiH is a promising material for hydrogen storage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Lüdecke
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods: Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results: The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion: Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Lüdecke
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness.Theory and methods: Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care.Results: The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making.Conclusion and discussion: Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa MUTLU
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this study, the IR heated stress relieve oven was experimentally and theoretically examined. In experimental measurements, temperature was measured on headlight surface, placed in IR oven at various conveyor speeds and various distances between IR lamps and headlight surface. In theoretical study, a mathematical model was developed for the headlights surface temperature by using heat transfer theory. The results obtained by the mathematical model and the measurement showed very good agreement with a 6.5 % average error. It is shown that mathematical models can be used to estimate the surface temperatures when the oven is operated under different conditions.
Theoretical studies of ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chavez, Ernesto Lopez [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular y Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Fray Servando Teresa de Mier 92, 1er. Piso, Col Centro, Mexico D.F. CP 06080 (Mexico); Oviedo-Roa, R.; Contreras-Perez, Gustavo; Martinez-Magadan, Jose Manuel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, CP 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castillo-Alvarado, F.L. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9 de la UPALM, Colonia Lindavista, Mexico D.F. CP 07738 (Mexico)
2010-11-15
Ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes was studied using techniques of molecular modeling and simulation. The COMPASS force field was used. The simulation allows the description of the mechanism of ionic conductivity along the polymer matrix. The theoretical results obtained are compared with experimental results for chitosan membranes. The analysis suggests that the conduction mechanism is portrayed by the overlapping large Polaron tunneling model. In addition, when the chitosan membrane was crosslinked with an appropriate degree of crosslinking its ionic conductivity, at room temperature, was increased by about one order of magnitude. The chitosan membranes can be used as electrolytes in solid state batteries, electric double layer capacitors and fuel cells. (author)
Theoretical spectral properties of PAHs: towards a detailed model of their photophysics in the ISM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malloci, Giuliano; Mulas, Giacomo; Porceddu, Ignazio
2005-01-01
In the framework of density functional theory (DFT) we computed the spectral properties of a total of about 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different charge states. From our complete atlas of PAHs, ranging in size from naphthalene (C 10 H 8 ) to dicoronylene (C 48 H 20 ), we present here a sample of results concerning both ground-state and excited-state properties. Our theoretical results are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. This makes them particularly precious when the latter are not easily obtainable, as is often the case for the highly reactive radicals and ions of such species. In another paper (Mulas et al., same volume) we show that our theoretical results can be reliably used to model the behaviour of these molecules in astrophysical environments
Modern trends in theoretical radiation chemistry development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplan, I.G.
1983-01-01
Most important trends in the development of radiation chemitry theory are considered. Wide use of electronic computers for modeling different stages of radiolysis in conjUnction with advanced precision experimental methods (picosecond pulse radiolysis, acceptor additions method, magnetic method of detecting interstitial active particles) is noted. Information obtained in photochemistry and molecular spectroscopy, including laser photolysis, is in common use in developing the theory. It is noted that data on the processes occurring within less than 10 -12 s time can be obtained now only on the base of theoretical representations about the mechanism of ionizing irradiation interaction with molecular medium. Therefore, special attention in the review is paid to investigation of primary radiolysis processes. Besides investigation of primary medium excitation processes theoretical investigations into the ways of energy degradation, knocked out electrons and their further state are continued. It is noted that a considerable number of papers deal with the nature and behaviour of radiation-induced excess electrons in non-polar solutions and solid matrices. Works on application of diffusion kinetics in radiolysis have been developed in recent years
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dagiuklas Tasos
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a Wireless Information-Theoretic Security (WITS scheme, which has been recently introduced as a robust physical layer-based security solution, especially for infrastructureless networks. An autonomic network of moving users was implemented via 802.11n nodes of an ad hoc network for an outdoor topology with obstacles. Obstructed-Line-of-Sight (OLOS and Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS propagation scenarios were examined. Low-speed user movement was considered, so that Doppler spread could be discarded. A transmitter and a legitimate receiver exchanged information in the presence of a moving eavesdropper. Average Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR values were acquired for both the main and the wiretap channel, and the Probability of Nonzero Secrecy Capacity was calculated based on theoretical formula. Experimental results validate theoretical findings stressing the importance of user location and mobility schemes on the robustness of Wireless Information-Theoretic Security and call for further theoretical analysis.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar
2015-01-01
experimental results from the literature for industrial grade passive tilting pad bearings. This initial validation is followed by a comparison with experimental identification results obtained from a test rig featuring the active bearing design. Good overall agreement is observed in both configurations...
First p-Pb results from the ALICE experiment
CERN. Geneva
2012-01-01
We present the first results from proton-lead collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=5.02 TeV obtained by the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. They are based on the data obtained during the pilot p-Pb run in September 2012. The measurements include the pseudorapidity density, transverse momentum distribution and the nuclear modification factor of unidentified charged particles. Our results will be compared to previous p-p, A-A and d-A experimental results and to the available theoretical model predictions. Prospects for the long p-Pb run at the beginning of 2013 will be given.
New results for antiproton-proton elastic scattering and various theoretical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fazal-e-Aleem; Saleem, M.; Yodh, G.B.
1991-01-01
The most recent measurements of the ratio ρ of the real and imaginary parts of the forward-scattering amplitudes at 0.546 TeV, the total and elastic differential cross sections at 0.546 and 1.8 TeV for proton-antiproton scattering, are compared to the predictions of the generalized Chou-Yang and other theoretical models. For 1.8 TeV, the presence or absence of the break near -t∼0.15 (GeV/c) 2 and of the dip in the vicinity of 0.6 (GeV/c) 2 are also discussed in the light of various predictions. The possibility of a further rise of the ratio ρ at 1.8 TeV is also probed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2002-01-01
The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrico Ciulli
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Tilting pad journal bearings are usually employed in turbomachines for their stable behavior at high rotational speeds. Devoted test rigs have been realized to validate the predictions of theoretical models. However, the design of new high-performance and large-size bearings needs to be supported by experimental investigations on high-performance large test rigs. The main characteristics of a recently built facility for testing large tilting pad journal bearings with diameters from 150 to 300 mm are described in this work. The test rig is versatile and can be used to test bearings of different size, configurations and to investigate the influence of many parameters, even the effect of misalignment. Sample results of the static characterization of a four-pad high-performance tilting pad journal bearing are reported evidencing some transient effects. A few sample dynamic results are also reported. The presented experimental results demonstrated the capabilities of the rig for investigating the static and the dynamic characteristics of the bearings accurately measuring slow and fast variables.
Preliminary observations and results obtained with the ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Athay, R.G.; Beckers, J.M.; Brandt, J.C.; Bruner, E.C.; Chapman, R.D.; Cheng, C.C.; Burman, J.G.; Henze, W.; Hyder, C.L.; Michalitsianos, A.G.; Shine, R.A.; Schoolman, S.A.; Woodgate, B.E.
1981-01-01
We present new observations with the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) of a number of manifestations of solar activity obtained during the first 3 months of Solar Maximum Mission operations
THE ORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE RADIO ENGINEERS’ ECONOMIC COMPETENCE OBTAINING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
В. Приступа
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of radio engineers’ economic competence obtaining. The theoretical and practical issues of pedagogical model are presented on the basis of traditional, business-oriented and context approaches
A theoretical assessment of antioxidant capacity of flavonoids by means of local hyper–softness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudia Sandoval-Yañez
2018-05-01
Full Text Available A theoretical reactivity descriptor to estimate local reactivity on molecules was tested to assess the antioxidant capability of some flavonoids. It was validated by comparison with experimental precedents published already by Firuzi et al. (2005. The aforementioned reactivity index is called local hyper-softness (LHS. This parameter was applied on HO- substituent groups on the same set of flavonoids within each subclassification: flavones (apigenin and baicalein, flavonols (fisetin, galangin, 3–OH flavone, kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin, flavanones (hesperetin, naringenin, taxifolin and isoflavones (daidzein and genistein. Experimental values of both techniques, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and anodic oxidation potential (Eap were retrieved from Firuzi et al. (2005 with the purpose of validating the calculated LHS values. Excepting myricetin, the LHS values of all these compounds matched in a similar order relationship experimentally obtained by means of Eap and FRAP from Firuzi et al. (2005. Our results revealed that LHS is a suitable theoretical parameter to get an insight concerning to the antioxidant capacity of these compounds, in particular, LHS allows explaining experimentally obtained values of FRAP along with Eap values in terms of reactivity of HO- substituent groups belonging these molecules theoretically computed without including experimental parametes. Keywords: Flavonoids, Antioxidant capacity, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, Anodic oxidation potential, Local hypersoftness
Theoretical study on loss of coolant accident of a research reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kwon-Yeong; Kim, Wan-Soo
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A theoretical model of siphon breaking phenomena was developed. • A general formula using Chisholm coefficient B was proposed. • The safety requirements regarding a loss of coolant accident of research reactors could be found out. - Abstract: Under the design conditions of a research reactor, the siphon phenomenon induced by pipe rupture can cause continuous efflux of water. In order to prevent water efflux, an additional facility is necessary. A siphon breaker is a type of safety facility that can resist the loss of coolant effectively. However, analysis of siphon breaking is complex since it comprises two-phase flow and there are many inputs to be considered. For this reason, we analyzed the experimental results to develop a theoretical model of siphon breaking phenomena. Developed model is based on fluid mechanics and Chisholm model. From Bernoulli’s equation, the velocity and quantity as well as undershooting height, water level, pressure, friction coefficient, and factors related to the two-phase flow could be calculated. The Chisholm model, which is able to analyze the two-phase flow, can predict the results in a manner similar to those obtained from a real-scale experiment, and a general formula using Chisholm coefficient B was proposed in this study. Also, we verified the theoretical model and concluded that it is possible to analyze the siphon breaking. Moreover, the design conditions that can satisfy the safety requirements regarding a loss of coolant accident of research reactors could be found out by using the theoretical model. In conclusion, we propose the theoretical model which can analyze the siphon breaking as real, and it is helpful not only to analyze but also to design the siphon breaker.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yibo Sun
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Ultrasonic bonding has an increasing application in the micro assembly of polymeric micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS with high requirements for fusion precision. In the ultrasonic bonding process, the propagation of ultrasonic vibration in polymer components is related to the interfacial fusion, which can be used as a monitoring parameter to control ultrasonic energy. To study the vibration propagation in viscoelastic polymer components, finite element analysis on the bonding of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA micro connector to substrate for microfluidic system is carried out. Curves of propagated vibration amplitude corresponding to interfacial temperatures are obtained. The ultrasonic vibration propagated in PMMA components are measured through experiments. The theoretical and experimental results are contrasted to analyze the change mechanism of vibration propagation related to temperature. Based on the ultrasonic bonding process controlled by the feedback of vibration propagation, interfacial fusions at different vibration propagation states are obtained through experiments. Interfacial fusion behavior is contrasted to the propagated vibration amplitude in theoretical and experimental studies. The relation between vibration propagation and fusion degree is established with the proper parameter range for the obtained high quality bonding.
Theoretical and numerical investigations of inverse patchy colloids in the fluid phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Bianchi, Emanuela; Ferrari, Silvano; Kahl, Gerhard
2015-01-01
We investigate the structural and thermodynamic properties of a new class of patchy colloids, referred to as inverse patchy colloids (IPCs) in their fluid phase via both theoretical methods and simulations. IPCs are nano- or micro- meter sized particles with differently charged surface regions. We extend conventional integral equation schemes to this particular class of systems: our approach is based on the so-called multi-density Ornstein-Zernike equation, supplemented with the associative Percus-Yevick approximation (APY). To validate the accuracy of our framework, we compare the obtained results with data extracted from NpT and NVT Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, other theoretical approaches are used to calculate the properties of the system: the reference hypernetted-chain (RHNC) method and the Barker-Henderson thermodynamic perturbation theory. Both APY and RHNC frameworks provide accurate predictions for the pair distribution functions: APY results are in slightly better agreement with MC data, in particular at lower temperatures where the RHNC solution does not converge
Si, Guo-Ning; Chen, Lan; Li, Bao-Guo
2014-04-01
Base on the Kawakita powder compression equation, a general theoretical model for predicting the compression characteristics of multi-components pharmaceutical powders with different mass ratios was developed. The uniaxial flat-face compression tests of powder lactose, starch and microcrystalline cellulose were carried out, separately. Therefore, the Kawakita equation parameters of the powder materials were obtained. The uniaxial flat-face compression tests of the powder mixtures of lactose, starch, microcrystalline cellulose and sodium stearyl fumarate with five mass ratios were conducted, through which, the correlation between mixture density and loading pressure and the Kawakita equation curves were obtained. Finally, the theoretical prediction values were compared with experimental results. The analysis showed that the errors in predicting mixture densities were less than 5.0% and the errors of Kawakita vertical coordinate were within 4.6%, which indicated that the theoretical model could be used to predict the direct compaction characteristics of multi-component pharmaceutical powders.
Optimization of Investment Planning Based on Game-Theoretic Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Vladimirovna Butsenko
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The game-theoretic approach has a vast potential in solving economic problems. On the other hand, the theory of games itself can be enriched by the studies of real problems of decision-making. Hence, this study is aimed at developing and testing the game-theoretic technique to optimize the management of investment planning. This technique enables to forecast the results and manage the processes of investment planning. The proposed method of optimizing the management of investment planning allows to choose the best development strategy of an enterprise. This technique uses the “game with nature” model, and the Wald criterion, the maximum criterion and the Hurwitz criterion as criteria. The article presents a new algorithm for constructing the proposed econometric method to optimize investment project management. This algorithm combines the methods of matrix games. Furthermore, I show the implementation of this technique in a block diagram. The algorithm includes the formation of initial data, the elements of the payment matrix, as well as the definition of maximin, maximal, compromise and optimal management strategies. The methodology is tested on the example of the passenger transportation enterprise of the Sverdlovsk Railway in Ekaterinburg. The application of the proposed methodology and the corresponding algorithm allowed to obtain an optimal price strategy for transporting passengers for one direction of traffic. This price strategy contributes to an increase in the company’s income with minimal risk from the launch of this direction. The obtained results and conclusions show the effectiveness of using the developed methodology for optimizing the management of investment processes in the enterprise. The results of the research can be used as a basis for the development of an appropriate tool and applied by any economic entity in its investment activities.
Benchmark on traveling wave fast reactor with negative reactivity feedback obtained with MCNPX code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gann, V.V.; Gann, A.V.
2012-01-01
This paper presents results of computer simulations of traveling wave fast reactor with negative reactivity feedback. The results were obtained using MCNPX code combined with CINDER90 subroutine for depletion calculations. We considered 1-D model of TWR containing 4 m long core made of mixture of 66 at. % 238 U and 34 at. % 10 B. Ignitor made of 235 U was located in the center of the core. Boron was included as imitator of structural in-core materials and coolant. Negative reactivity feedback was adjusted to reactor power of 500 MW. In this case two burning waves originated from the igniter and travel to the ends of the core during the following 40 years; coefficient of utilization of 238 U reached 80 %. Distribution of specific power in traveling wave, isotope concentration of fission products and actinides, neutron flux, fast neutron spectrum, specific activity were calculated. Data of the computer simulation is in qualitative agreement with theoretical results obtained in slow burning wave approximation
Bokarev, Sergey; Efimov, Stefan
2017-11-01
In the present article, we report results of a laboratory experimental study of reinforced-concrete superstructure fragments with extended longitudinal boxing sidewalls. The study included laboratory tests and numerical experiments performed using a finite element model of fragments generated in specialized simulation software. The distribution of horizontal pressures over the height of longitudinal boxing sidewalls, the dependence of the bending moment in the root section of the sidewalls on the ballast-bed thickness under sleepers, and some other characteristics were examined. The results of the experimental and theoretical study have shown a good convergence of obtained data to each other and to the data obtained by an improved engineering calculation procedure proposed by the present authors.
A theoretical study on the mechanism of electronic to vibrational energy transfer in Hg/3P/ + CO
Kato, S.; Jaffe, R. L.; Komornicki, A.; Morokuma, K.
1983-01-01
The mechanism of electronic-to-vibrational (E-V) energy transfer in Hg(3P) + CO collisions has been studied theoretically. The configuration interaction (CI) method was employed to calculate potential energy surfaces of the collision system. A simplified theoretical model, based on the reaction coordinate concept and the calculated potential energy characteristics, was used to discuss the mechanism of the singlet-triplet transition and the energy disposal in the collision. The results obtained were that: (a) the quenching process processed via a collision complex mechanism; and that (b) the triplet-singlet transition occurs near the collinear geometry. A model classical trajectory calculation gives a product CO vibrational distribution in good agreement with the experimental result.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank Hubenthal
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The morphology of small gold particles prepared by Volmer–Weber growth on sapphire substrates have been investigated by two different characterization techniques. First, by non-extensive atomic force microscopy (AFM in combination with optical spectroscopy and modeling of the optical properties using a theoretical model, recently developed in our group. Second, by extensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Comparing the results obtained with both techniques demonstrate that for small gold nanoparticles within the quasistatic limit, the morphological properties can be precisely determined by an appropriate theoretical modeling of the optical properties in combination with simple AFM measurements. The apparent mean axial ratio of the nanoparticles, i.e., the axial ratio that corresponds to the center frequency of the ensemble plasmon resonance, is obtained easily from the extinction spectrum. The mean size is determined by the nanoparticle number density and the amount of deposited material, measured by AFM and a quartz micro balance, respectively. To extract the most probable axial ratio of the nanoparticle ensemble, i.e., the axial ratio that corresponds to the most probable nanoparticle size in the ensemble, we apply the new theoretical model, which allows to extract the functional dependence of the nanoparticle shape on its size. The morphological parameters obtained with this procedure will be afterwards compared to extensive TEM measurements. The results obtained with both techniques yield excellent agreement. For example, the lateral dimensions of the nanoparticles after deposition of 15.2 × 1015 atoms/cm2 of gold has been compared. While a mean lateral diameter of (13 ± 2 nm has been extracted from AFM, optical spectroscopy and modeling, a value of (12 ± 2 nm is derived from TEM. The consistency of the results demonstrate the precision of our new model. Moreover, since our theoretical model allows to extract the functional
Sultan, Mujeeb A; Karama, Usama; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Soliman, Saied M
2016-09-23
A theoretical study of the regioselectivity of the Diels-Alder reaction between 1,8-dichloroanthracene and acrolein is performed using DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The FMO analysis, global and local reactivity indices confirmed the reported experimental results. Potential energy surface analysis showed that the cycloadditions (CAs) favor the formation of the anti product. These results are in good agreement with the reported results obtained experimentally where the anti is the major product.
A theoretical study for thorium monocarbide (ThC)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aydin, S.; Tatar, A. [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Teknikokullar 06500, Ankara (Turkey); Ciftci, Y.O., E-mail: yasemin@gazi.edu.tr [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Teknikokullar 06500, Ankara (Turkey)
2012-10-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focused on high pressure behavior of ThC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ThC is metallic, and mechanically stable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained results agree with the other available values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ThC is hard material, and hardness increases properly with pressure. - Abstract: The structural, mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of thorium monocarbide (ThC) with NaCl-type structure have been investigated by using first-principles plane wave density functional calculations with GGA, LDA and LDA + U functionals. It is shown that calculated equilibrium structural parameters of ThC are in agreement with the experimental results. It is seen from calculated single-crystal elastic constants that ThC with NaCl-type structure is mechanically stable. And from calculated density of states and band structure, it is observed that ThC is metallic. After the properties at 0 GPa are clarified, pressure dependency of the structural parameters, the elastic properties and related mechanical properties, density of states (DOS) and hardness are studied. Furthermore, the thermodynamic properties of ThC are obtained from the quasi-harmonic Debye model (QHM) over high pressure and temperature ranges for three functionals. The results are compared to each other, and the available experimental and theoretical data.
A theoretical study for thorium monocarbide (ThC)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydin, S.; Tatar, A.; Ciftci, Y.O.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We focused on high pressure behavior of ThC. ► ThC is metallic, and mechanically stable. ► The obtained results agree with the other available values. ► ThC is hard material, and hardness increases properly with pressure. - Abstract: The structural, mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of thorium monocarbide (ThC) with NaCl-type structure have been investigated by using first-principles plane wave density functional calculations with GGA, LDA and LDA + U functionals. It is shown that calculated equilibrium structural parameters of ThC are in agreement with the experimental results. It is seen from calculated single-crystal elastic constants that ThC with NaCl-type structure is mechanically stable. And from calculated density of states and band structure, it is observed that ThC is metallic. After the properties at 0 GPa are clarified, pressure dependency of the structural parameters, the elastic properties and related mechanical properties, density of states (DOS) and hardness are studied. Furthermore, the thermodynamic properties of ThC are obtained from the quasi-harmonic Debye model (QHM) over high pressure and temperature ranges for three functionals. The results are compared to each other, and the available experimental and theoretical data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bocek, M.; Hofmann, P.; Leistikow, S.; Class, G.; Meyder, R.; Raff, S.; Erbacher, F.; Hofmann, G.; Ihle, P.; Karb, E.; Fiege, A.
1978-09-01
In this report the status of knowledge is described which has been gathered up to the end of 1977 of the LWR fuel rod behavior in loss-of-coolant accidents. The majority of results indicated have been derived from studies on the fuel rod behavior performed within the framework of the Nuclear Safety Project (PNS); partly, also the results of cooperating research establishments and fm international exchange of experience are referred to. The report has been subdivided into two complete parts: Part I provides a survey of the most significant results of the theoretical and experimental research projects on fuel rod behavior. Part II describes by detailed individual presentations the status as well as the results with respect to the major central subjects. (orig.) 891 RW 892 AP [de
Genecentric: a package to uncover graph-theoretic structure in high-throughput epistasis data
Gallant, Andrew; Leiserson, Mark DM; Kachalov, Maxim; Cowen, Lenore J; Hescott, Benjamin J
2013-01-01
Background New technology has resulted in high-throughput screens for pairwise genetic interactions in yeast and other model organisms. For each pair in a collection of non-essential genes, an epistasis score is obtained, representing how much sicker (or healthier) the double-knockout organism will be compared to what would be expected from the sickness of the component single knockouts. Recent algorithmic work has identified graph-theoretic patterns in this data that can indicate functional ...
The production of scientific videos: a theoretical approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Ernesto Gavilondo Rodriguez
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical research on the production of scientific videos and its application to the teaching-learning process carried out in schools in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. It is located within the production line and Audiovisual Communication. Creation of scientific videos, from the Communication major with a concentration in audiovisual production and multimedia of the Salesian Polytechnic University. For the realization of the article it was necessary to use key terms that helped subsequently to data collection. used terms such as: audiovisual production, understood as the production of content for audiovisual media; the following term used audiovisual communication is recognized as the process in which there is an exchange of messages through an audible and / or visual system; and the last term we use is scientifically video, which is one that uses audiovisual resources to obtain relevant and reliable information.As part of the theoretical results a methodological proposal for the video production is presented for educational purposes. In conclusion set out, first, that from the communicative statement in recent times, current social relations, constitute a successful context of possibilities shown to education to generate meeting points between the world of the everyday and the knowledge. Another indicator validated as part of the investigation, is that teachers surveyed use the potential of the audiovisual media, and supported them, deploy alternatives for use.
The effect of uncertainty of reactor parameters obtained using k0-NAA on result of analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasajima, Fumio
2006-01-01
Neutron Activation Analysis using the k 0 method is a useful method allowing convenient and accurate simultaneous analysis of plural elements, eliminating the need for the use of comparative reference samples. As already well known, it is essential for the correct result of an analysis to obtain the α-factor and f-factor for a neutron spectrum in an irradiation field accurately when an attempt is made to use the k 0 method. For this reason, based on data obtained from the experiment conducted in the JRR-3 PN-3 system, how uncertainty of the measured values for α-factor and f-factor affects the result of an analysis was evaluated. The process of evaluation involved intentionally varying the values for reactor parameters followed by making an analysis of environmental reference samples (NIST SRM-1632c) using the k 0 method to examine the effect of these factors on the concentrations of 19 elements. The result of the evaluation revealed that the degree of the effect of uncertainty on the concentrations of 19 elements was at best approx. 1% under the condition of this experiment assuming that the factor α, a reactor parameter, had uncertainty of approx. 200%. (author)
Results obtained with the passive radiation detectors in the ICCHIBAN-4 experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilski, P.; Horwacik, T.
2005-05-01
In frame of the InterComparison of Cosmic rays with Heavy Ions Beams at NIRS (ICCHIBAN) organized at the HIMAC accelerator in Chiba several types of the thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), as well as CR-39 track detectors, were exposed. Four different types of TLDs were used: MTS-7 ( 7 LiF:Mg,Ti), MTS-6 ( 6 LiF:Mg,Ti), MCP-7 ( 7 LiF:Mg,Cu,P) and MTT-7 ( 7 LiF:Mg,Ti with changed activator composition. All TLDs were manufactured at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Cracow. The detectors were irradiated with various doses of He, C, Ne and Fe ions. Part of exposures were done in unknown conditions, to test measuring capabilities of the detectors. For analyses of these results, the method of obtaining information on ionisation density of an unknown radiation field, which is based on ratios of responses of different LiF detectors, was successfully used. (author)
Fluorescein isothiocyanate: Molecular characterization by theoretical calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casanovas, Jordi [Departament de Quimica, Escola Politecnica Superior, Universitat de Lleida, c/Jaume II No 69, Lleida E-25001 (Spain); Jacquemin, Denis [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique Appliquee, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)], E-mail: denis.jacquemin@fundp.ac.be; Perpete, Eric A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique Appliquee, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Aleman, Carlos [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, E. T. S. d' Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)], E-mail: carlos.aleman@upc.edu
2008-12-10
Quantum mechanical calculations have been used to investigate the conformation, molecular geometry, basicity and spectroscopic properties of fluorescein isothiocyanate in both the gas-phase and aqueous solution. Specifically, calculations have been performed considering the neutral, monoanionic and dianionic forms of this important fluorescent compound. Results reveal that for the neutral form multiple conformational states are possible, all them with significant contributions, and the stability of the different conformers is similar in the gas-phase and aqueous solution. Calculation of the excitation energies revealed that spectroscopic properties are very sensitive to the relaxation effect in solution. A good agreement has been reached obtained between the experimental and theoretical values derived from time-dependent density functional theory methods for the neutral form, whereas for charged species the calculations fail to accurately reproduce the measured trends.
Analytic game—theoretic approach to ground-water extraction
Loáiciga, Hugo A.
2004-09-01
The roles of cooperation and non-cooperation in the sustainable exploitation of a jointly used groundwater resource have been quantified mathematically using an analytical game-theoretic formulation. Cooperative equilibrium arises when ground-water users respect water-level constraints and consider mutual impacts, which allows them to derive economic benefits from ground-water indefinitely, that is, to achieve sustainability. This work shows that cooperative equilibrium can be obtained from the solution of a quadratic programming problem. For cooperative equilibrium to hold, however, enforcement must be effective. Otherwise, according to the commonized costs-privatized profits paradox, there is a natural tendency towards non-cooperation and non-sustainable aquifer mining, of which overdraft is a typical symptom. Non-cooperative behavior arises when at least one ground-water user neglects the externalities of his adopted ground-water pumping strategy. In this instance, water-level constraints may be violated in a relatively short time and the economic benefits from ground-water extraction fall below those obtained with cooperative aquifer use. One example illustrates the game theoretic approach of this work.
Theoretical Simulations of Materials for Nuclear Energy Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrikosov, A.; Ponomareva, A.V.; Nikonov, A.Y.; Barannikova, S.A.; Dmitriev, A.I.
2014-01-01
We have demonstrated that state-of-the art theoretical calculations have a capability to predict thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials with very high accuracy, comparable to the experimental accuracy. Considering Fe-Cr alloys, we have investigated the effect of multicomponent alloying on their phase stability, and we have shown that alloying elements Ni, Mn, and Mo, present in RPV steels, reduce the stability of low-Cr steels against binodal, as well as spinodal decomposition. Considering Zr-Nb alloys, we have demonstrated a possibility of obtaining their elastic moduli from ab initio electronic structure calculations. We argue that theoretical simulations represent valuable tool for a design of new materials for nuclear energy applications
Solar pond conception - experimental and theoretical studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurt, Huseyin [Zonguldak Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey); Halici, Fethi [Sakarya Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Adapazari (Turkey); Binark, A. Korhan [Marmara Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)
2000-07-01
A one dimensional transient mathematical model for predicting the thermal performance of the salt gradient solar pond is developed and presented. In this paper, the natural solar ponds and different artificial solar pond systems found in the literature are introduced. Necessary modifications are made on the experimental stand located in Istanbul Technical University, the experimental stand is introduced and natural phenomena produced in the pond by the different solar pond variations under natural conditions are observed. In the theoretical work based on a one dimensional unsteady state heat conduction model with internal heat generation, the energy and mass balance equations for the upper convective zone, the non-convective zone and the lower convective zone, all of which form the solar pond, are written in terms of differential equations. These equations are solved analytically and numerically. The results obtained from the analysis are compared with the experimental results. The temperature and the concentration profiles are separately presented in the figures. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mujeeb A. Sultan
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A theoretical study of the regioselectivity of the Diels-Alder reaction between 1,8-dichloroanthracene and acrolein is performed using DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p level of theory. The FMO analysis, global and local reactivity indices confirmed the reported experimental results. Potential energy surface analysis showed that the cycloadditions (CAs favor the formation of the anti product. These results are in good agreement with the reported results obtained experimentally where the anti is the major product.
Rodgers, Mary T; Armentrout, Peter B
2016-01-01
Quantitative insight into the structures and thermodynamics of alkali metal cations interacting with biological molecules can be obtained from studies in the gas phase combined with theoretical work. In this chapter, the fundamentals of the experimental and theoretical techniques are first summarized and results for such work on complexes of alkali metal cations with amino acids, small peptides, and nucleobases are reviewed. Periodic trends in how these interactions vary as the alkali metal cations get heavier are highlighted.
De Jaegher, Kris
2012-01-01
This paper presents a game-theoretical model of the physician-patient relationship. There is a conflict of interests between physician and patient, in that the physician prefers the patient to always obtain a particular treatment, even if the patient would not consider this treatment in his interest. The patient obtains imperfect cues of whether or not he needs the treatment. The effect of an increase in the quality of the patient's private information is studied, in the form of an improvement in the quality of his cues. It is shown that when the patient's information improves in this sense, he may either become better off or worse off. The precise circumstances under which either result is obtained are derived.
Clare, Brian W; Supuran, Claudiu T
2005-03-15
A QSAR based almost entirely on quantum theoretically calculated descriptors has been developed for a large and heterogeneous group of aromatic and heteroaromatic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, using orbital energies, nodal angles, atomic charges, and some other intuitively appealing descriptors. Most calculations have been done at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. For the first time we have treated five-membered rings by the same means that we have used for benzene rings in the past. Our flip regression technique has been expanded to encompass automatic variable selection. The statistical quality of the results, while not equal to those we have had with benzene derivatives, is very good considering the noncongeneric nature of the compounds. The most significant correlation was with charge on the atoms of the sulfonamide group, followed by the nodal orientation and the solvation energy calculated by COSMO and the charge polarization of the molecule calculated as the mean absolute Mulliken charge over all atoms.
Hybrid cogeneration system fueled with biogas obtained from urban sewage water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laurentiu Călin
2008-10-01
Full Text Available When treating urban waste water, a large quantity of sludge is produced. This sludge may by used in fermentation tanks to obtain biogas with medium to high levels of methane, which is ideal for electric energy and heat production. The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical study regarding the use of biogas in power and heat generation modules. Biogas can be used for fueling internal combustion engines or fuel cells, which in turn generate electricity. Waste heat contained in the exhaust gas can be recovered in order to maximize efficiency. The theoretical study presented in this paper evaluates electrical and overall efficiency of a biogas production installation inside an urban waste water treatment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleman, Carlos; Oliver, Ramon; Brillas, Enric; Casanovas, Jordi; Estrany, Francesc
2005-01-01
This work presents an experimental and theoretical investigation about the influence of the dopant in the electropolymerization of α-tetrathiophene. Adherent, insoluble, and black polymeric films were obtained in the presence of LiClO 4 , while no evidence about the formation of polymer was detected with LiCl and LiBr electrolytes. On the other hand, quantum mechanical calculations based on the density functional theory were performed on 1:1 charge-transfer complexes formed by α-tetrathiophene and X = ClO 4 , Cl or Br. The consistency between experimental and theoretical results is discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marc Vanderhaeghen
2007-04-01
The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.
Theoretical optical spectroscopy of complex systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Conte, A. Mosca, E-mail: adriano.mosca.conte@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Violante, C., E-mail: claudia.violante@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Missori, M., E-mail: mauro.missori@isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) (Italy); Bechstedt, F., E-mail: bech@ifto.physik.uni-jena.de [Institut fur Festkorpertheorie und -optik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Teodonio, L. [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Istituto centrale per il restauro e la conservazione del patrimonio archivistico e librario (IC-RCPAL), Italian Minister for Cultural Heritage, Via Milano 76, 00184 Rome (Italy); Ippoliti, E.; Carloni, P. [German Research School for Simulation Sciences, Julich (Germany); Guidoni, L., E-mail: leonardo.guidoni@univaq.it [Università degli Studi di L’Aquila, Dipartimento di Chimica e Materiali, Via Campo di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Pulci, O., E-mail: olivia.pulci@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy)
2013-08-15
Highlights: ► We review some theoretical condensed matter ab initio spectroscopic computational techniques. ► We show several applications ranging from 0 to 3 dimensional systems. ► For each system studied, we show which kind of information it is possible to obtain by performing these calculations. -- Abstract: We review here some of the most reliable and efficient computational theoretical ab initio techniques for the prediction of optical and electronic spectroscopic properties and show some important applications to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We investigate the role of the solvent in the optical absorption spectrum of indole molecule. We study the excited-state properties of a photo-active minimal model molecule for the retinal of rhodopsin, responsible for vision mechanism in animals. We then show a study about spectroscopic properties of Si(1 1 1) surface. Finally we simulate a bulk system: paper, that is mainly made of cellulose, a pseudo-crystalline material representing 40% of annual biomass production in the Earth.
Theoretical optical spectroscopy of complex systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conte, A. Mosca; Violante, C.; Missori, M.; Bechstedt, F.; Teodonio, L.; Ippoliti, E.; Carloni, P.; Guidoni, L.; Pulci, O.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► We review some theoretical condensed matter ab initio spectroscopic computational techniques. ► We show several applications ranging from 0 to 3 dimensional systems. ► For each system studied, we show which kind of information it is possible to obtain by performing these calculations. -- Abstract: We review here some of the most reliable and efficient computational theoretical ab initio techniques for the prediction of optical and electronic spectroscopic properties and show some important applications to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We investigate the role of the solvent in the optical absorption spectrum of indole molecule. We study the excited-state properties of a photo-active minimal model molecule for the retinal of rhodopsin, responsible for vision mechanism in animals. We then show a study about spectroscopic properties of Si(1 1 1) surface. Finally we simulate a bulk system: paper, that is mainly made of cellulose, a pseudo-crystalline material representing 40% of annual biomass production in the Earth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldeira, A.D.
1987-05-01
The theoretical and adjusted Watt spectrum representations for 235 U are used as weighting functions to calculate K eff and θ f 28 /θ f 25 for the benchmark Godiva. The results obtained show that the values of K eff and θ f 28 /θ f 25 are not affected by spectrum form change. (author) [pt
Zapata, Camilo; Andrade, Daniel; Córdova, Jorge; Maisincho, Luis; Carvajal, Juan; Calispa, Marlon; Villacís, Marcos
2014-05-01
The study of tropical glaciers has been a significant contribution to the understanding of glacier dynamics and climate change. Much of the data and results have been obtained by analyzing plan-view images obtained by air- and space-borne sensors, as well as depth data obtained by diverse methodologies at selected points on the glacier surface. However, the measurement of glacier thicknesses has remained an elusive task in tropical glaciers, often located in rough terrains where the application of geophysical surveys (i.e. seismic surveys) requires logistics sometimes hardly justified by the amount of obtained data. In the case of Ecuador, however, where most glaciers have developed on active volcanoes and represent sources/reservoirs of fresh water, the precise knowledge of such information is fundamental for scientific research but also in order to better assess key aspects for the society. The relatively recent but fast development of the GPR technology has helped to obtain new highdefinition thickness data at Antisana volcano that will be used to: 1) better understand the dynamics and fate of tropical glaciers; 2) better estimate the amount of fresh water stored in the glaciers; 3) better assess the hazards associated with the sudden widespread melting of glaciers during volcanic eruptions. The measurements have been obtained at glaciers 12 and 15 of Antisana volcano, with the help of a commercial GPR equipped with a 25 MHz antenna. A total of 30 transects have been obtained, covering a distance of more than 3 km, from the glacier ablation zone, located at ~ 4600 masl, up to the level of 5200 masl. The preliminary results show a positive correlation between altitude and glacier thickness, with maximum and minimum calculated values reaching up to 80 m, and down to 15 m, respectively. The experience gained at Antisana volcano will be used to prepare a more widespread GPR survey in the glaciers of Cotopaxi volcano, whose implications in terms of volcanic hazards
A Simple theoretical model for 63Ni betavoltaic battery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ZUO, Guoping; ZHOU, Jianliang; KE, Guotu
2013-01-01
A numerical simulation of the energy deposition distribution in semiconductors is performed for 63 Ni beta particles. Results show that the energy deposition distribution exhibits an approximate exponential decay law. A simple theoretical model is developed for 63 Ni betavoltaic battery based on the distribution characteristics. The correctness of the model is validated by two literature experiments. Results show that the theoretical short-circuit current agrees well with the experimental results, and the open-circuit voltage deviates from the experimental results in terms of the influence of the PN junction defects and the simplification of the source. The theoretical model can be applied to 63 Ni and 147 Pm betavoltaic batteries. - Highlights: • The energy deposition distribution is found following an approximate exponential decay law when beta particles emitted from 63 Ni pass through a semiconductor. • A simple theoretical model for 63 Ni betavoltaic battery is constructed based on the exponential decay law. • Theoretical model can be applied to the betavoltaic batteries which radioactive source has a similar energy spectrum with 63 Ni, such as 147 Pm
A new theoretical approach to analyze complex processes in cytoskeleton proteins.
Li, Xin; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B
2014-03-20
Cytoskeleton proteins are filament structures that support a large number of important biological processes. These dynamic biopolymers exist in nonequilibrium conditions stimulated by hydrolysis chemical reactions in their monomers. Current theoretical methods provide a comprehensive picture of biochemical and biophysical processes in cytoskeleton proteins. However, the description is only qualitative under biologically relevant conditions because utilized theoretical mean-field models neglect correlations. We develop a new theoretical method to describe dynamic processes in cytoskeleton proteins that takes into account spatial correlations in the chemical composition of these biopolymers. Our approach is based on analysis of probabilities of different clusters of subunits. It allows us to obtain exact analytical expressions for a variety of dynamic properties of cytoskeleton filaments. By comparing theoretical predictions with Monte Carlo computer simulations, it is shown that our method provides a fully quantitative description of complex dynamic phenomena in cytoskeleton proteins under all conditions.
Summary on Theoretical Aspects
Soffer, Jacques
2010-01-01
During the five days of this conference a very dense scientific program has enlighted our research fields, with the presentation of large number of interesting lectures. I will try to summarize the theoretical aspects of some of these new results.
Theoretical and experimental studies on in-plane stiffness of integrated container structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoxiong Zha
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This article presents analytical, numerical, and experimental studies on the in-plane stiffness of container buildings. First, based on diaphragm theory, parallel corrugated direction stiffness of corrugated sheet has been deduced, and based on energy method, shear modulus of two elastic principal directions of orthotropic plate has been deduced, and through stiffness conversion method, the stiffness relationship between parallel corrugated direction and vertical corrugated direction has been obtained. Combined with container frame, the container stiffness of loading end and non-loading end, as bottom side beam fixed, has been obtained. Second, through the software Abaqus, full-scale container model has been established. The loading–displacement curve of finite element model has been compared with theoretical analysis and has a good agreement. Third, through 20 and 40 ft container, corresponding experimental verification has been done, and by comparison of container stiffness, the theoretical analysis and finite element simulation have been verified. Finally, based on verified finite element model, parametric analysis of corrugated sheet size, corrugated sheeting cross section, elasticity modulus of top side beam, and every plate action for container stiffness have been given. Research result has made feasible in design and construction of container buildings and can provide some references to corresponding specification preparation.
THEORETICAL ANALYSIS STUDY OF FORMATION OF FUTURE LEGAL LAWYERS
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Eugene Stepanovich Shevlakov
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers in high school. Obtained kinds of legal consciousness of future lawyers, determined its structure. Dedicated components of justice are mutually reinforcing, and provide an opportunity for further development of the personality of the future specialist, their personal growth.The purpose: to carry out theoretical analysis of the problem of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers.The novelty is based. On the analysis of theoretical appro-aches of pedagogy, psychology, law, the notion of «lawfulness of the future of the law student», which is regarded as a form of social consciousness, which is a set of legal views and feelings, expressing the attitude to the law and legal phenomena that have regulatory in character and which includes know-ledge of legal phenomena and their evaluation from the point of view of fairness and justice, formed in the process of studying in the University.Results: this article analyzes different approaches to understanding the content and essence of the concept of legal consciousness of the legal profession. Define the types and structure of legal consciousness of future lawyers.
Transport at basin scales: 1. Theoretical framework
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Rinaldo
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes the theoretical framework for a class of general continuous models of the hydrologic response including both flow and transport of reactive solutes. The approach orders theoretical results appeared in disparate fields into a coherent theoretical framework for both hydrologic flow and transport. In this paper we focus on the Lagrangian description of the carrier hydrologic runoff and of the processes embedding catchment-scale generation and transport of matter carried by runoff. The former defines travel time distributions, while the latter defines lifetime distributions, here thought of as contact times between mobile and immobile phases. Contact times are assumed to control mass transfer in a well-mixed approximation, appropriate in cases, like in basin-scale transport phenomena, where the characteristic size of the injection areas is much larger than that of heterogeneous features. As a result, we define general mass-response functions of catchments which extend to transport of matter geomorphologic theories of the hydrologic response. A set of examples is provided to clarify the theoretical results towards a computational framework for generalized applications, described in a companion paper.
Theoretical study of the aluminum melting curve to very high pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moriarty, J.A.; Young, D.A.; Ross, M.
1984-01-01
A detailed theoretical study of the Al melting curve from normal melting conditions to pressures in the vicinity of 2 Mbar is presented. The analysis is based on two parallel, but distinct, treatments of the metal: the first from rigorous generalized pseudopotential theory involving first-principles nonlocal pseudopotentials and the second from a parametrized local pseudopotential model which has been accurately fit to first-principles band-theory and experimental equation-of-state data. Both treatments utilize full lattice-dynamical calculations of the phonon free energy in the solid, within the harmonic approximation, and fluid variational theory to obtain the free energy of the liquid. Particular attention is focused on the choice of the reference system in implementing the fluid variational theory. It is shown that in Al the soft-sphere model of Ross produces a lower (and hence more accurate) liquid free energy than either the hard-sphere or one-component-plasma reference systems, and is, moreover, necessary to obtain a reasonable quantitative description of the melting properties. With the soft-sphere system, the two theoretical treatments give results in good overall agreement with each other and with experiment. In particular, melting on the shock Hugoniot is predicted to begin at about 1.2 Mbar and to end at about 1.55 Mbar, in excellent agreement with the recent preliminary measurements of McQueen
The chirally rotated Schroedinger functional. Theoretical expectations and perturbative tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalla Brida, Mattia
2016-03-01
The chirally rotated Schroedinger functional (χSF) with massless Wilson-type fermions provides an alternative lattice regularization of the Schroedinger functional (SF), with different lattice symmetries and a common continuum limit expected from universality. The explicit breaking of flavour and parity symmetries needs to be repaired by tuning the bare fermion mass and the coefficient of a dimension 3 boundary counterterm. Once this is achieved one expects the mechanism of automatic O(a) improvement to be operational in the χSF, in contrast to the standard formulation of the SF. This is expected to significantly improve the attainable precision for step-scaling functions of some composite operators. Furthermore, the χSF offers new strategies to determine finite renormalization constants which are traditionally obtained from chiral Ward identities. In this paper we consider a complete set of fermion bilinear operators, define corresponding correlation functions and explain the relation to their standard SF counterparts. We discuss renormalization and O(a) improvement and then use this set-up to formulate the theoretical expectations which follow from universality. Expanding the correlation functions to one-loop order of perturbation theory we then perform a number of non-trivial checks. In the process we obtain the action counterterm coefficients to one-loop order and reproduce some known perturbative results for renormalization constants of fermion bilinears. By confirming the theoretical expectations, this perturbative study lends further support to the soundness of the χSF framework and prepares the ground for non-perturbative applications.
Optimal information transfer in enzymatic networks: A field theoretic formulation
Samanta, Himadri S.; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.
2017-07-01
Signaling in enzymatic networks is typically triggered by environmental fluctuations, resulting in a series of stochastic chemical reactions, leading to corruption of the signal by noise. For example, information flow is initiated by binding of extracellular ligands to receptors, which is transmitted through a cascade involving kinase-phosphatase stochastic chemical reactions. For a class of such networks, we develop a general field-theoretic approach to calculate the error in signal transmission as a function of an appropriate control variable. Application of the theory to a simple push-pull network, a module in the kinase-phosphatase cascade, recovers the exact results for error in signal transmission previously obtained using umbral calculus [Hinczewski and Thirumalai, Phys. Rev. X 4, 041017 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.041017]. We illustrate the generality of the theory by studying the minimal errors in noise reduction in a reaction cascade with two connected push-pull modules. Such a cascade behaves as an effective three-species network with a pseudointermediate. In this case, optimal information transfer, resulting in the smallest square of the error between the input and output, occurs with a time delay, which is given by the inverse of the decay rate of the pseudointermediate. Surprisingly, in these examples the minimum error computed using simulations that take nonlinearities and discrete nature of molecules into account coincides with the predictions of a linear theory. In contrast, there are substantial deviations between simulations and predictions of the linear theory in error in signal propagation in an enzymatic push-pull network for a certain range of parameters. Inclusion of second-order perturbative corrections shows that differences between simulations and theoretical predictions are minimized. Our study establishes that a field theoretic formulation of stochastic biological signaling offers a systematic way to understand error propagation in
Comparison between observational and theoretical (log Tsub(eff), Msub(bol)) diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cayrel de Strobel, G.; Perrin, M.N.
1978-01-01
Perrin et al. (1977) have constructed an empirical HR diagram for 138 nearby F, G and K stars, for which they had: i) an effective temperature and a metal content derived from a detailed analysis; ii) a reliable bolometric magnitude obtained from an absolute magnitude Msub(V), based on a large parallax and a rather small bolometric correction. In the present work it is asserted that these results based on the theoretical grid of evolutionary models of Hejlesen (1975) remain valid if the observational (log Tsub(eff), Msub(bol)) model is studied with Demarque's (1977) evolutionary models. (Auth.)
Modeling theoretical uncertainties in phenomenological analyses for particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Charles, Jerome [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Universite de Toulon, CPT UMR 7332, Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Descotes-Genon, Sebastien [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Niess, Valentin [CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6533, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Aubiere Cedex (France); Silva, Luiz Vale [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Groupe de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); J. Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2017-04-15
The determination of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model (and its extensions) is often limited by the presence of statistical and theoretical uncertainties. We present several models for the latter uncertainties (random, nuisance, external) in the frequentist framework, and we derive the corresponding p values. In the case of the nuisance approach where theoretical uncertainties are modeled as biases, we highlight the important, but arbitrary, issue of the range of variation chosen for the bias parameters. We introduce the concept of adaptive p value, which is obtained by adjusting the range of variation for the bias according to the significance considered, and which allows us to tackle metrology and exclusion tests with a single and well-defined unified tool, which exhibits interesting frequentist properties. We discuss how the determination of fundamental parameters is impacted by the model chosen for theoretical uncertainties, illustrating several issues with examples from quark flavor physics. (orig.)
Group-theoretical interpretation of the Korteweg-de Vries type equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezin, F.A.; Perelomov, A.M.
1978-01-01
The Korteweg-de Vries equation is studied within the group-theoretical framework. Analogous equations are obtained for which the many-dimensional Schroedinger equation (with nonlocal potential) plays the same role as the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation does in the theory of the Korteweg-de Vries equation
Ray-tracing toroidal axisymmetric devices. 1. theoretical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardinali, A.; Brambilla, M.
1981-06-01
Ray tracing technique for lower hybrid waves is used to obtain informations about accessibility, power deposition profiles and eventually electric field distribution. In the first part a critical discussion to establish the meaning and validity of this technique is presented, while in the second part of this work applications to small and to large, fat tokamaks are presented, which support and explain the theoretical arguments
Radiotherapy problem under fuzzy theoretic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ammar, E.E.; Hussein, M.L.
2003-01-01
A fuzzy set theoretic approach is used for radiotherapy problem. The problem is faced with two goals: the first is to maximize the fraction of surviving normal cells and the second is to minimize the fraction of surviving tumor cells. The theory of fuzzy sets has been employed to formulate and solve the problem. A linguistic variable approach is used for treating the first goal. The solutions obtained by the modified approach are always efficient and best compromise. A sensitivity analysis of the solutions to the differential weights is given
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleman, Carlos [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, E.T.S. d' Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)], E-mail: carlos.aleman@upc.es; Oliver, Ramon [Unitat de Quimica Industrial, E.U.E. Tecnica Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, Barcelona E-08036 (Spain); Brillas, Enric [Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Casanovas, Jordi [Departament de Quimica, Escola Politecnica Superior, Universitat de Lleida, c/Jaume II No. 69, Lleida E-25001 (Spain); Estrany, Francesc [Unitat de Quimica Industrial, E.U.E. Tecnica Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, Barcelona E-08036 (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.estrany@upc.es
2005-07-18
This work presents an experimental and theoretical investigation about the influence of the dopant in the electropolymerization of {alpha}-tetrathiophene. Adherent, insoluble, and black polymeric films were obtained in the presence of LiClO{sub 4}, while no evidence about the formation of polymer was detected with LiCl and LiBr electrolytes. On the other hand, quantum mechanical calculations based on the density functional theory were performed on 1:1 charge-transfer complexes formed by {alpha}-tetrathiophene and X = ClO{sub 4}, Cl or Br. The consistency between experimental and theoretical results is discussed.
An experimental and theoretical study of reaction mechanisms between nitriles and hydroxylamine.
Vörös, Attila; Mucsi, Zoltán; Baán, Zoltán; Timári, Géza; Hermecz, István; Mizsey, Péter; Finta, Zoltán
2014-10-28
The industrially relevant reaction between nitriles and hydroxylamine yielding amidoximes was studied in different molecular solvents and in ionic liquids. In industry, this procedure is carried out on the ton scale in alcohol solutions and the above transformation produces a significant amount of unexpected amide by-product, depending on the nature of the nitrile, which can cause further analytical and purification issues. Although there were earlier attempts to propose mechanisms for this transformation, the real reaction pathway is still under discussion. A new detailed reaction mechanistic explanation, based on theoretical and experimental proof, is given to augment the former mechanisms, which allowed us to find a more efficient, side-product free procedure. Interpreting the theoretical results obtained, it was shown that the application of specific imidazolium, phosphonium and quaternary ammonium based ionic liquids could decrease simultaneously the reaction time while eliminating the amide side-product, leading to the targeted product selectively. This robust and economic procedure now affords a fast, selective amide free synthesis of amidoximes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Motylicki, Juan Enrique [Oleoductos del Valle S.A. (OLDEVAL S.A.), (Argentina)
2003-07-01
The main objective of the pipelines maintenance is to assure the integrity of them in order to have a reliable operation and with an acceptable level of risk that minimizes the impact to people, to the environment and the business. The objective of this work is to expose the experiences obtained before by Oldelval and after the passages of the intelligent pig, carried out in the years 1999/2000. In the same one they will be described: How the flaws were selected to verify / to repair. Results obtained in digs. Laboratory studies to determine like they affect to the integrity of the pipeline, the different types of opposing plane defects. Conclusions. (author)
Field theoretical approach to proton-nucleus reactions. I - One step inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eiras, A.; Kodama, T.; Nemes, M.C.
1988-01-01
In this work we obtain a closed form expression to the double differential cross section for one step proton-nucleus reaction within a field theoretical framework. Energy and momentum conservation as well as nuclear structure effects are consistently taken into account within the field theoretical eikonal approximation. In our formulation the kinematics of such reaction is not dominated by the free nucleon-nucleon cross section but a new factor which we call relativistic differential cross section in a Born Approximation. (author) [pt
Quantum field theoretic properties of nonabelian phase factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wieczorek, E.
1984-01-01
The paper is concerned with quantum field theoretical properies of nonabelian phase factors. The phase factors defining parallel transport in fiber bundle space are the necessary tool for the construction of gauge invariant nonlocal operators describing bound states in QCD. General structures of such operators are discussed and renormalization properties as well as relations between meson and baryon operators are obtained from a study of the underlying phase factors
A theoretical model for predicting neutron fluxes for cyclic Neutron ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A theoretical model has been developed for prediction of thermal neutron fluxes required for cyclic irradiations of a sample to obtain the same activity previously used for the detection of any radionuclide of interest. The model is suitable for radiotracer production or for long-lived neutron activation products where the ...
Research results for the applications of high power ion beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Sun Jianfeng; He Xiaoping; Tang Junping; Wang Haiyang; Zhang Jiasheng; Xu Ri; Peng Jianchang; Ren Shuqing; Li Peng; Yang Li; Huang Jianjun; Zhang Guoguang; Ouyang Xiaoping; Li Hongyu
2003-01-01
The results obtained in the theoretical and experimental studies for the application of high power ion beams in certain areas of nuclear physics and material science are reported. The preliminary experimental results of generating 6-7 MeV quasi-monoenergetic pulsed γ-rays with high power pulsed proton beams striking 19 F target on the Flash II accelerator are presented. By placing the target far enough downstream, the quasi-monoenergetic pulsed γ-rays can be discriminated experimentally from the diode Bremsstrahlung. This article also describes the other applications of high power ion beams and the preliminary experimental and theoretical results in simulation of soft X-ray thermal-mechanical effects, generation of high intense pulsed neutrons, equation of state and shock-wave physics experiments, surface modification and so on
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shwekani, R.; Suman, H.; Takeyeddin, M.; Suleiman, J.
2003-11-01
This work aimed at estimating the lead equivalent values for finishing materials, which are frequently used in Syria. These materials are ceramic and marble. In the past, many studies were performed to estimate the lead equivalent values for different types of bricks, which are widely used in Syria. Therefore, this work could be considered as a follow up in order to be able to estimate the structural shielding of diagnostic X-ray rooms and accurately perform the shielding calculations to reduce unnecessary added shields. The work was done in two ways, theoretical using MCNP computer code and experimental in the secondary standard laboratory. The theoretical work was focused on generalizing the results scope to cover the real existing variations in the structure of the materials used in the finishing or the variations in the X-ray machines. Therefore, quantifying different sources of errors were strongly focused on using the methodology of sensitivity analysis. While, the experiment measurements were performed to make sure that their results will be within the error range produced by the theoretical study. The obtained results showed a strong correlation between theoretical and experimental data. (author)
Universality in an information-theoretic motivated nonlinear Schrodinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parwani, R; Tabia, G
2007-01-01
Using perturbative methods, we analyse a nonlinear generalization of Schrodinger's equation that had previously been obtained through information-theoretic arguments. We obtain analytical expressions for the leading correction, in terms of the nonlinearity scale, to the energy eigenvalues of the linear Schrodinger equation in the presence of an external potential and observe some generic features. In one space dimension these are (i) for nodeless ground states, the energy shifts are subleading in the nonlinearity parameter compared to the shifts for the excited states; (ii) the shifts for the excited states are due predominantly to contribution from the nodes of the unperturbed wavefunctions, and (iii) the energy shifts for excited states are positive for small values of a regulating parameter and negative at large values, vanishing at a universal critical value that is not manifest in the equation. Some of these features hold true for higher dimensional problems. We also study two exactly solved nonlinear Schrodinger equations so as to contrast our observations. Finally, we comment on the possible significance of our results if the nonlinearity is physically realized
Shock Hugoniot and temperature data for polystyrene obtained with quartz standard
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozaki, N.; Kimura, T.; Miyanishi, K.; Endo, T.; Sano, T.; Shigemori, K.; Azechi, H.; Hironaka, Y.; Kadono, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Nakai, M.; Norimatsu, T.; Otani, K.; Shiroshita, A.; Sunahara, A.; Ikoma, M.; Hori, Y.; Vinci, T.; Ree, F. H.; Iwamoto, A.
2009-01-01
Equation-of-state data, not only pressure and density but also temperature, for polystyrene (CH) are obtained up to 510 GPa. The region investigated in this work corresponds to an intermediate region, bridging a large gap between available gas-gun data below 60 GPa and laser shock data above 500 GPa. The Hugoniot parameters and shock temperature were simultaneously determined by using optical velocimeters and pyrometers as the diagnostic tools and the α-quartz as a new standard material. The CH Hugoniot obtained tends to become stiffer than a semiempirical chemical theoretical model predictions at ultrahigh pressures but is consistent with other models and available experimental data.
A game theoretic framework for evaluation of the impacts of hackers diversity on security measures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zare Moayedi, Behzad; Azgomi, Mohammad Abdollahi
2012-01-01
Game theoretical methods offer new insights into quantitative evaluation of dependability and security. Currently, there is a wide range of useful game theoretic approaches to model the behaviour of intelligent agents. However, it is necessary to revise these approaches if there is a community of hackers with significant diversity in their behaviours. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to extend the basic ideas of applying game theory in stochastic modelling. The proposed method classifies the community of hackers based on two main criteria used widely in hacker classifications, which are motivation and skill. We use Markov chains to model the system and compute the transition rates between the states based on the preferences and the skill distributions of hacker classes. The resulting Markov chains can be solved to obtain the desired security measures. We also present the results of an illustrative example using the proposed approach, which examines the relation between the attributes of the community of hackers and the security measures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madoz-Escande, C.; Peyrus, J.-C.
1979-01-01
Hydrogeological studies are undertaken in the context of the radiological safety of nuclear plants to forecast consequences of accidental releases of radioactive pollutants into an aquifer (transfer time, concentration at points of emergence). This quantitative forecast is obtained with the aid of a mathematical model with sequential emission. This requires a knowledge of the physical parameters of the aquifer and of the behavior of the pollutant in relation to the water-bearing medium. The physical parameters of a saturated porous medium are presented with the aid of radioactive tracer tests on a model and also in the field. The initial results obtained in a sandy medium are presented. In view of the difficulty of extrapolating to field conditions the conclusions of tests on models, it was necessary to set up a mobile laboratory with which in situ studies could be undertaken. The behavior of the pollutant in relation to the water-bearing medium is the subject of preliminary laboratory research on the laws of adsorption under different pH and temperature conditions. The numerical results obtained call for confirmation in the field. A description is given of a method which should enable the distribution coefficients to be evaluated in situ
An experimental and theoretical investigation of creep buckling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohya, H.
1977-01-01
Creep buckling is one of the failure modes which must be taken into consideration for the design of structures exposed to elevated temperatures. And, rules are provided in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case 1592 to prevent the creep buckling. However, methods of analysis are not provided in Code Case, and selecting the methods of analysis is left to owners and manufacturers. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate creep buckling phenomena and the methods of analysis. Creep buckling experiments were performed on aluminum alloy 2024-T4 cylindrical shells having radius to thickness ratios of 16, 25, 50 and 80, in single, double and triple step axial compression at 250 0 C. It was observed that buckling occurred at one of the edges and the buckling mode depended on the radius to thickness ratio and also on the applied stress level. Thicker cylinders buckled in axisymmetric mode. Thinner ones under higher applied stress levels buckled in the asymmetric mode, whereas under lower applied stress levels they buckled in the axisymmetric mode. Creep buckling times were obtained from end shortening record of the cylinders. Experimental results were compared with theoretical values obtained by two methods. (Auth.)
Theoretical study of liquid droplet dispersion in a venturi scrubber.
Fathikalajahi, J; Talaie, M R; Taheri, M
1995-03-01
The droplet concentration distribution in an atomizing scrubber was calculated based on droplet eddy diffusion by a three-dimensional dispersion model. This model is also capable of predicting the liquid flowing on the wall. The theoretical distribution of droplet concentration agrees well with experimental data given by Viswanathan et al. for droplet concentration distribution in a venturi-type scrubber. The results obtained by the model show a non-uniform distribution of drops over the cross section of the scrubber, as noted by the experimental data. While the maximum of droplet concentration distribution may depend on many operating parameters of the scrubber, the results of this study show that the highest uniformity of drop distribution will be reached when penetration length is approximately equal to one-fourth of the depth of the scrubber. The results of this study can be applied to evaluate the removal efficiency of a venturi scrubber.
Agrawal, L.; Bhardwaj, A.; Pal, S.; Kumar, A.
2007-11-01
This article presents the results of a detailed theoretical and experimental analysis carried out on a folded Z-shaped polarization coupled, electro-optically Q-switched laser resonator with Porro prisms and waveplates. The advantages of adding waveplates in a Porro prism resonator have been explored for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching and obtaining variable reflectivity with fixed orientation of Porro prism. Generalized expressions have been derived in terms of azimuth angles and phase shifts introduced by the polarizing elements. These expressions corroborate with known reported results under appropriate substitutions. A specific case of a crossed Porro prism diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. In the feedback arm, a 0.57λ waveplate oriented at 135° completely compensates the phase shift of a fused silica Porro prism and provides better tolerances than a BK-7 prism/0.60λ waveplate combination to stop prelasing. The fused silica prism/0.57λ combination with waveplate at 112° acts like a 100% mirror and was utilized for optimization of free running performance. The effective reflectivity was determined for various orientations of the quarter waveplate in the gain arm to numerically estimate the Q-switched laser pulse parameters through rate equation analysis. Experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis.
Theoretical investigation of the secondary ionization in krypton and xenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saffo, M.E.
1986-01-01
A theoretical investigation of the secondary ionization processes that responsible for the pre-breakdown ionization current growth in a uniform electric field was studied in krypton and xenon gases, especially at low values of E/P 0 which is corresponding to high values of pressure, since there are a number of possible secondary ionization processes. It is interesting to carry out a quantitative analysis for the generalized secondary ionization coefficient obtained previously by many workers in terms of the production of excited states and their diffusion to the cathode and their destruction rate in the gas body. From energy balance equation for the electrons in the discharge, the fractional percentage energy losses of ionization, excitation, and elastic collisions to the total energy gained by the electron from the field has been calculated for krypton and xenon, as a result of such calculations; the conclusion drawn is that at low values of E/P 0 the main energy loss of electrons are in excited collision. Therefore, we are adopting a theoretical calculation for W/α under the assumption that the photo-electron emission at the cathode is the predominated secondary ionization process. 14 tabs.; 12 figs.; 64 refs
The theoretical arsenal of the European industrial integration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yevhenii Machok
2009-03-01
Full Text Available In this article there was researched the key theories of the European industrial integration, made a comparative analysis. There has been done a detailed analysis of the main approaches to study and explanation of the industrial complexes integration of the European Union member states. There were described the key principles of the following concepts: functionalism, neofunctionalism, federalism, functional confederalism, theory federalism, of transactionalism, international regime, interdependency theory, agreement system, dynamism theory of the European industrial policy, intergovernmentalism, theory of multilevel management, theory of networks policy, government-centrism, neoinstitutionalism, comparativism and others. The obtained results can be used as a theoretical basis for the further study of the industrial policies among European Union member states; their approximation in the context of the formation of the common European economic complex and integration process of the member states.
Polycarbonate-based ordered arrays of electrochemical nanoelectrodes obtained by e-beam lithography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moretto, L M; De Leo, M; Ugo, P [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Tormen, M; Carpentiero, A, E-mail: ugo@unive.it [CNR-IOM, TASC Laboratory, Basovizza S S 14 km 163.5, 34149 Trieste (Italy)
2011-05-06
Ordered arrays of nanoelectrodes for electrochemical use are prepared by electron beam lithography (EBL) using polycarbonate as a novel e-beam resist. The nanoelectrodes are fabricated by patterning arrays of holes in a thin film of polycarbonate spin-coated on a gold layer on Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} substrate. Experimental parameters for the successful use of polycarbonate as high resolution EBL resist are optimized. The holes can be filled partially or completely by electrochemical deposition of gold. This enables the preparation of arrays of nanoelectrodes with different recession degree and geometrical characteristics. The polycarbonate is kept on-site and used as the insulator that separates the nanoelectrodes. The obtained nanoelectrode arrays (NEAs) exhibit steady state current controlled by pure radial diffusion in cyclic voltammetry for scan rates up to approximately 50 mV s{sup -1}. Electrochemical results showed satisfactory agreement between experimental voltammograms and suitable theoretical models. Finally, the peculiarities of NEAs versus ensembles of nanoelectrodes, obtained by membrane template synthesis, are critically evaluated.
Single-phase and two phase bubbly flow in a T connection: theoretical and experimental study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hervieu, Eric
1988-01-01
The objective of this research thesis is to highlight the driving factors of the separation of phases of a bubbly flow in a T junction, and to develop a prediction model. In a first part, the author reports the rigorous formulation of equations averaged on the T volume. He shows that it's not possible to solve globally the problem with these equations. Then, he reports a bibliographical study on the modelling of a bubbly flow, and, based upon this study, highlights intrinsic characteristics of the flow, and explains its dynamic mechanisms. He reports the development of the theoretical model, and describes the experimental installation used to validate it. In the third part, he reports the study of the liquid-gas interaction, and presents the adopted approach: study of the behaviour of an isolated bubble within a single-phase flow. Experimentation is used to check theoretical predictions. Results are used to compute phase separation. The obtained results are again compared with experimental results to validate the global relevance of the model [fr
Theoretical simulation of soft x-rays for recombining pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Huimin; Zhang Guoping; Sheng Jiatian
1990-05-01
The theoretical study and computational simulation of soft X-ray laser produced by the recombination of highly ionized plasma are given. An one-dimensional non LTE radiative hydrodynamic code JB-19 is used for simulating the process of soft X-ray laser produced by the recombination. The incident laser light is focused linearly onto the thin carbon fibre. In the duration of incident laser pulse a highly ionized plasma is generated. After the incident laser has been ended the plasma adiabatically expands and rapidly cools down. During the time of three-body recombination and cascading transition, the population inversion between n = 3 and n = 2 is produced and transition gain is obtained. The analysis and evolution is presented, and factors effected on the gain are also discussed. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data of RAL. It is found that some were in good agreement with them but some are not. Under the limitation of laser energy, the gain is inversely proportional to the wave-length and pulse width of incident laser. For obtaining high gain it is necessary to have double frequency and to shorten the pulse width of Nd-glass laser. Finally the preliminary results about H-like F ion are also given
Theoretical analysis for the optical deformation of emulsion droplets.
Tapp, David; Taylor, Jonathan M; Lubansky, Alex S; Bain, Colin D; Chakrabarti, Buddhapriya
2014-02-24
We propose a theoretical framework to predict the three-dimensional shapes of optically deformed micron-sized emulsion droplets with ultra-low interfacial tension. The resulting shape and size of the droplet arises out of a balance between the interfacial tension and optical forces. Using an approximation of the laser field as a Gaussian beam, working within the Rayleigh-Gans regime and assuming isotropic surface energy at the oil-water interface, we numerically solve the resulting shape equations to elucidate the three-dimensional droplet geometry. We obtain a plethora of shapes as a function of the number of optical tweezers, their laser powers and positions, surface tension, initial droplet size and geometry. Experimentally, two-dimensional droplet silhouettes have been imaged from above, but their full side-on view has not been observed and reported for current optical configurations. This experimental limitation points to ambiguity in differentiating between droplets having the same two-dimensional projection but with disparate three-dimensional shapes. Our model elucidates and quantifies this difference for the first time. We also provide a dimensionless number that indicates the shape transformation (ellipsoidal to dumbbell) at a value ≈ 1.0, obtained by balancing interfacial tension and laser forces, substantiated using a data collapse.
International Conference on Theoretical and Computational Physics
2016-01-01
Int'l Conference on Theoretical and Computational Physics (TCP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on Theoretical and Computational Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. TCP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of Theoretical and Computational Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akbari, Amin; Firooz, Azam Anaraki [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, PO Box 16785-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beheshtian, Javad, E-mail: j.beheshtian@srttu.edu [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, PO Box 16785-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Abbas Ali [Oil and Gas Processing Center of Excellence, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, 11155-4563 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-10-01
Highlights: • Hexagonally plate ZnO microstructure was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • HRTEM images indicated a single crystal with a [0 0 1] direction growth. • DFT calculations were performed to reveal structure and electronic properties of ZnO. • The CO sensor response was close to obtained theoretical results. - Abstract: A simple low temperature hydrothermal method has been investigated for synthesis of single phase hexagonally plate ZnO microstructure. The synthesized ZnO was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) photoluminescence spectrum (PL) and ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis) to investigate the surface morphology, crystallographic phase, optical properties and used as a sensor for detection of CO gas molecules. It was observed that the ZnO microstructures were uniform size, single phase and symmetrical, with a hexagonal shape and height of ∼250 nm. The optical band gap value of this sample was calculated to be about 3.22 eV, which show a red shift with theoretical method. High-resolution TEM images indicate that all the microstructures are single crystals with a [0 0 1] direction growth. We studied the gas response of this sample to 500 ppm CO over a temperature range of 200–400 °C and compared with theoretical results. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to investigate the structure and electronic properties of ZnO with simulating the adsorption process of CO gas on the ZnO (1 0 1) surface. The theoretical results were in good agreement with experimental results.
Field theoretical approach to proton-nucleus reactions: II-Multiple-step excitation process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eiras, A.; Kodama, T.; Nemes, M.
1989-01-01
A field theoretical formulation to multiple step excitation process in proton-nucleus collision within the context of a relativistic eikonal approach is presented. A closed form expression for the double differential cross section can be obtained whose structure is very simple and makes the physics transparent. Glauber's formulation of the same process is obtained as a limit of ours and the necessary approximations are studied and discussed. (author) [pt
Peeled Guidewire Coating with Debulked Plaque Obtained by Directional Coronary Atherectomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rikuta Hamaya
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Percutaneous directional coronary atherectomy (DCA is a plaque debulking method performed in Japan, and recently a renewed DCA device has been launched. We present a case with a tight left anterior descending lesion undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with application of DCA. After several sessions of DCA, white plaques accompanied by green, stringed materials were obtained from the device; some materials were considerably long (approximately 15 mm in length. A drug-eluting stent was subsequently implanted, and the procedure was completed successfully without any complications. The extracted plaques and artificial materials were pathologically examined, and no inflammatory changes were detected on plaques adjacent to the material. Assessing pathological findings and structure of the DCA catheter, the obtained artificial materials were considered as peeled guidewire, possibly resulting from the friction between the guidewire and metallic bearing in the housing of DCA catheter. Of note, this phenomenon has been recognized even in other DCA cases in which guidewires of the other kind are used. We report this phenomenon for the first time, warning of theoretically possible distal embolization of artificial materials caused by any debulking devices.
Theoretical Results in Heavy Flavour Production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kramer, G.
2011-01-01
We review one-particle inclusive production of heavy-flavoured hadrons in a framework which resums the large collinear logarithms through the evolution of the FFs and PDFs and retains the dependence on the heavy-quark mass. We focus on presenting results for the inclusive cross section for the production of charmed mesons in pp-bar collisions and the comparison with CDF data as well as on inclusive B-meson production and comparison with recent CDF data, for which in both new determined fragmentation functions have been used. We asses the sensitivity of CDF data of D 0 inclusive production to the internal charm parametrization given by Pumplin et al. [J. Pumplin, H. L. Lai and W. K. Tung, Phys. Rev. D75, 054029 (2007)].
Numerical and theoretical investigations of resistive drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sunn Pedersen, T.
1995-07-01
With regard to the development of thermonuclear fusion utilizing a plasma confined in a magnetic field, anomalous transport is a major problem and is considered to be caused by electrostatic drift wave turbulence. A simplified quasi-two-dimensional slab model of resistive drift wave turbulence is investigated numerically and theoretically. The model (Hasegawa and Wakatani), consists of two nonlinear partial differential equations for the density perturbation n and the electrostatic potential perturbation φ. It includes the effect of a background density gradient perpendicular to the magnetic field and a generalized Ohm's law for the electrons in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. It may be used to model the basic features of electrostatic turbulence and the associated transport in an edge plasma. Model equations are derived and some important properties of the system are discussed. It is described how the Fourier spectral method is applied to the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, how the time integration is developed to ensure accurate and fast simulations in a large parameter regime, and how the accuracy of the code is checked. Numerical diagnostics are developed to verify and extend the results in publications concerning quasi-stationary turbulent states and to give an overview of the properties of the quasi-stationary turbulent state. The use of analysis tools, not previously applied to the Hasegawa-Wakatani system, and the results obtained are described. Fluid particles are tracked to obtain Lagrangian statistics for the turbulence. A new theoretical analysis of relative dispersion leads to a decomposition criterion for the particles. The significance of this is investigated numerically and characteristic time scales for particles are determined for a range of parameter values. It is indicated that the turbulent state can be characterized in the context of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory as an attractor with a large basin of attraction. The basic
Blatt, John M
1979-01-01
A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to
Experimental and theoretical study of particle transport in the TCV Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fable, E.
2009-06-01
The main scope of this thesis work is to compare theoretical models with experimental observations on particle transport in particular regimes of plasma operation from the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) located at CRPP–EPFL in Lausanne. We introduce the main topics in Tokamak fusion research and the challenging problems in the first Chapter. A particular attention is devoted to the modelling of heat and particle transport. In the second Chapter the experimental part is presented, including an overview of TCV capabilities, a brief review of the relevant diagnostic systems, and a discussion of the numerical tools used to analyze the experimental data. In addition, the numerical codes that are used to interpret the experimental data and to compare them with theoretical predictions are introduced. The third Chapter deals with the problem of understanding the mechanisms that regulate the transport of energy in TCV plasmas, in particular in the electron Internal Transport Barrier (eITB) scenario. A radial transport code, integrated with an external module for the calculation of the turbulence-induced transport coefficients, is employed to reproduce the experimental scenario and to understand the physics at play. It is shown how the sustainment of an improved confinement regime is linked to the presence of a reversed safety factor profile. The improvement of confinement in the eITB regime is visible in the energy channel and in the particle channel as well. The density profile shows strong correlation with the temperature profile and has a large local logarithmic gradient. This is an important result obtained from the TCV eITB scenario analysis and is presented in the fourth Chapter. In the same chapter we present the estimate of the particle diffusion and convection coefficients obtained from density transient experiments performed in the eITB scenario. The theoretical understanding of the strong correlation between density and temperature observed in the e
Theoretical isochrones with decreasing gravitational constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vandenberg, D.A.
1976-01-01
Van Flandern has postulated a variation of the gravitational constant at the rate approximately -8 x 10 -11 /yr. This variation, consistent with Hoyle-Narlikar and Dirac cosmologies, has been assumed in the computation of a 5 x 10 9 yr theoretical isochrone. Present results show that, even for this age, theory predicts a cluster turn-off luminosity approximately 0.5 to 1.0 mag fainter than the observed turn-offs of globular clusters. Unsatisfactory agreement between theoretical and observed luminosity functions is also indicated. (author)
Theoretical chemistry in Belgium a topical collection from theoretical chemistry accounts
Champagne, Benoît; De Proft, Frank; Leyssens, Tom
2014-01-01
Readers of this volume can take a tour around the research locations in Belgium which are active in theoretical and computational chemistry. Selected researchers from Belgium present research highlights of their work. Originally published in the journal Theoretical Chemistry Accounts, these outstanding contributions are now available in a hardcover print format. This volume will be of benefit in particular to those research groups and libraries that have chosen to have only electronic access to the journal. It also provides valuable content for all researchers in theoretical chemistry.
Jayasree, P. K.; Arun, K. V.; Oormila, R.; Sreelakshmi, H.
2018-05-01
As per Indian Standards, laterally loaded piles are usually analysed using the method adopted by IS 2911-2010 (Part 1/Section 2). But the practising engineers are of the opinion that the IS method is very conservative in design. This work aims at determining the extent to which the conventional IS design approach is conservative. This is done through a comparative study between IS approach and the theoretical model based on Vesic's equation. Bore log details for six different bridges were collected from the Kerala Public Works Department. Cast in situ fixed head piles embedded in three soil conditions both end bearing as well as friction piles were considered and analyzed separately. Piles were also modelled in STAAD.Pro software based on IS approach and the results were validated using Matlock and Reese (In Proceedings of fifth international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, 1961) equation. The results were presented as the percentage variation in values of bending moment and deflection obtained by different methods. The results obtained from the mathematical model based on Vesic's equation and that obtained as per the IS approach were compared and the IS method was found to be uneconomical and conservative.
Anatomy of the Higgs fits: A first guide to statistical treatments of the theoretical uncertainties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sylvain Fichet
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The studies of the Higgs boson couplings based on the recent and upcoming LHC data open up a new window on physics beyond the Standard Model. In this paper, we propose a statistical guide to the consistent treatment of the theoretical uncertainties entering the Higgs rate fits. Both the Bayesian and frequentist approaches are systematically analysed in a unified formalism. We present analytical expressions for the marginal likelihoods, useful to implement simultaneously the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. We review the various origins of the theoretical errors (QCD, EFT, PDF, production mode contamination…. All these individual uncertainties are thoroughly combined with the help of moment-based considerations. The theoretical correlations among Higgs detection channels appear to affect the location and size of the best-fit regions in the space of Higgs couplings. We discuss the recurrent question of the shape of the prior distributions for the individual theoretical errors and find that a nearly Gaussian prior arises from the error combinations. We also develop the bias approach, which is an alternative to marginalisation providing more conservative results. The statistical framework to apply the bias principle is introduced and two realisations of the bias are proposed. Finally, depending on the statistical treatment, the Standard Model prediction for the Higgs signal strengths is found to lie within either the 68% or 95% confidence level region obtained from the latest analyses of the 7 and 8 TeV LHC datasets.
Anatomy of the Higgs fits: A first guide to statistical treatments of the theoretical uncertainties
Fichet, Sylvain; Moreau, Grégory
2016-04-01
The studies of the Higgs boson couplings based on the recent and upcoming LHC data open up a new window on physics beyond the Standard Model. In this paper, we propose a statistical guide to the consistent treatment of the theoretical uncertainties entering the Higgs rate fits. Both the Bayesian and frequentist approaches are systematically analysed in a unified formalism. We present analytical expressions for the marginal likelihoods, useful to implement simultaneously the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. We review the various origins of the theoretical errors (QCD, EFT, PDF, production mode contamination…). All these individual uncertainties are thoroughly combined with the help of moment-based considerations. The theoretical correlations among Higgs detection channels appear to affect the location and size of the best-fit regions in the space of Higgs couplings. We discuss the recurrent question of the shape of the prior distributions for the individual theoretical errors and find that a nearly Gaussian prior arises from the error combinations. We also develop the bias approach, which is an alternative to marginalisation providing more conservative results. The statistical framework to apply the bias principle is introduced and two realisations of the bias are proposed. Finally, depending on the statistical treatment, the Standard Model prediction for the Higgs signal strengths is found to lie within either the 68% or 95% confidence level region obtained from the latest analyses of the 7 and 8 TeV LHC datasets.
Theoretical Status of the RHIC Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jalilian-Marian, Jamal
2006-01-01
Since the beginning of its operation, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Lab has produced a wealth of exciting and interesting results. I give a brief overview of the theoretical aspects of the main results from the RHIC program
Godisov, O N; Yudkin, M I; Gerasimov, S F; Feofilov, G A
1994-01-01
Contradictory demands raised by the application of different types of sensitive detectors in 5 layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) for ALICE stipulate the simultaneous use of different schemes of heat drain: gaseous cooling of the 1st layer (uniform heat production over the sensitive surface) and evaporative cooling for the 2nd-5th layers (localised heat production). The last system is also a must for the thermostabilization of Si-drift detectors within 0.1 degree C. Theoretical estimates of gaseous, evaporative and liquid cooling systems are done for all ITS layers. The results of the experiments done for evaporative and liquid heat drain systems are presented and discussed. The major technical problems of the evaporative systems' design are being considered: i) control of liquid supply; ii) vapour pressure control. Two concepts of the evaporative systems are proposed: 1) One channel system for joint transfer of two phases (liquid + gas); 2) Two channels system with separate transfer of phases. Both sy...
Information theoretic quantification of diagnostic uncertainty.
Westover, M Brandon; Eiseman, Nathaniel A; Cash, Sydney S; Bianchi, Matt T
2012-01-01
Diagnostic test interpretation remains a challenge in clinical practice. Most physicians receive training in the use of Bayes' rule, which specifies how the sensitivity and specificity of a test for a given disease combine with the pre-test probability to quantify the change in disease probability incurred by a new test result. However, multiple studies demonstrate physicians' deficiencies in probabilistic reasoning, especially with unexpected test results. Information theory, a branch of probability theory dealing explicitly with the quantification of uncertainty, has been proposed as an alternative framework for diagnostic test interpretation, but is even less familiar to physicians. We have previously addressed one key challenge in the practical application of Bayes theorem: the handling of uncertainty in the critical first step of estimating the pre-test probability of disease. This essay aims to present the essential concepts of information theory to physicians in an accessible manner, and to extend previous work regarding uncertainty in pre-test probability estimation by placing this type of uncertainty within a principled information theoretic framework. We address several obstacles hindering physicians' application of information theoretic concepts to diagnostic test interpretation. These include issues of terminology (mathematical meanings of certain information theoretic terms differ from clinical or common parlance) as well as the underlying mathematical assumptions. Finally, we illustrate how, in information theoretic terms, one can understand the effect on diagnostic uncertainty of considering ranges instead of simple point estimates of pre-test probability.
Experiences and results multitasking a hydrodynamics code on global and local memory machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandell, D.
1987-01-01
A one-dimensional, time-dependent Lagrangian hydrodynamics code using a Godunov solution method has been multimasked for the Cray X-MP/48, the Intel iPSC hypercube, the Alliant FX series and the IBM RP3 computers. Actual multitasking results have been obtained for the Cray, Intel and Alliant computers and simulated results were obtained for the Cray and RP3 machines. The differences in the methods required to multitask on each of the machines is discussed. Results are presented for a sample problem involving a shock wave moving down a channel. Comparisons are made between theoretical speedups, predicted by Amdahl's law, and the actual speedups obtained. The problems of debugging on the different machines are also described
A consistent meson-theoretic description of the NN-interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machleidt, R.
1985-01-01
In this paper, the meson-theory of the NN-interaction is performed consistently. All irreducible diagrams up to a total exchanged mass of about 1 GeV (i. e. up to the cutoff region) are taken into account. These diagrams contain in particular an explicit field theoretic model for the 2π-exchange taking into account virtual Δ-excitation and direct π π-interaction. This part of the model agrees quantitatively with results obtained from dispersion theory which in turn are based on the analysis of πN- and π π-scattering data. A detailed description of the lower partial wave phase-shifts of NN-scattering requires the introduction of irreducible diagrams containing also heavy boson exchange, in particular the combination of π and rho. In the framework of this consistent meson theory an accurate description of the NN-scattering data below 300 MeV laboratory energy as well as the deuteron data is achieved; the numerical results are superior to those of simplified boson exchange models
A theoretical analysis on vibrational-energy transfers in gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mastrocinque, G.
1981-01-01
In order to investigate the relationships between three-dimensional and colinear molecular-collision models with particular emphasis on the role of repulsive and attractive forces in vibrational-energy transfers in gases, a theoretical analysis is developed in this paper. A few known results - mainly the Cottrell and Ream equation, the Takayanagi and the Shin expressions of the transfer probability - relevant to repulsive-force-dominated processes are obtained and/or discussed in the proposed frame. Light is also given on long-range, attractive-forces-dominated processes. The main result of this investigation is that, when a suitable hypothesis is done on the transfer probability, centrifugal effects on the intermolecular trajectories due to standard potentials are negligible in the low-temperature range. A quasi-colinear collision model, which is found to be correlated to the Cottrell and Ream expression for the transfer probability, is regained from a three-dimensional geometry in these conditions. (author)
Evaluation of neutron cross-sections for 242Cm to obtain a complete file
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakhanovich, L.A.; Klepetskij, A.B.; Maslov, V.M.; Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh.
1994-01-01
Experimental fission, capture, inelastic scattering, (n2n), (n3n) and other cross-sections are scarce or unavailable. As a consequence, theoretical models and parameters systematics have been used extensively in the calculation of these data. Data obtained in this work are compared with previous evaluations. Severe discrepancies were found. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs
Experimental and theoretical study on natural circulation capacity under rolling motion condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan Sichao; Gao Puzhen
2007-01-01
Effect of rolling motion on natural circulation capacity was studied experimentally and theoretically. Experiments were conducted under the conditions of rolling and unrolling motions. The experimental results show that natural circulation capacity decreases under rolling motion condition. A mathematic model was developed to calculate the natural circulation capacity under rolling motion condition, considering the characteristics of natural circulation, the model was modified. The calculated results agree with experimental data well. Effect of rolling motion on natural circulation was analyzed through calculation and the following conclusions were obtained: (1) The increase of flow resistance coefficient is the main reason that the natural circulation capacity decreases under rolling motion condition; (2) Non-uniform distribution of fluid mass in the pipe has also influence on natural circulation capacity. (author)
Xu, Kunshan; Qiu, Xingqi; Tian, Xiaoshuai
2018-01-01
The metal magnetic memory testing (MMMT) technique has been extensively applied in various fields because of its unique advantages of easy operation, low cost and high efficiency. However, very limited theoretical research has been conducted on application of MMMT to buried defects. To promote study in this area, the equivalent magnetic charge method is employed to establish a self-magnetic flux leakage (SMFL) model of a buried defect. Theoretical results based on the established model successfully capture basic characteristics of the SMFL signals of buried defects, as confirmed via experiment. In particular, the newly developed model can calculate the buried depth of a defect based on the SMFL signals obtained via testing. The results show that the new model can successfully assess the characteristics of buried defects, which is valuable in the application of MMMT in non-destructive testing.
Chen, Xi Lin; De Santis, Valerio; Umenei, Aghuinyue Esai
2014-07-07
In this study, the maximum received power obtainable through wireless power transfer (WPT) by a small receiver (Rx) coil from a relatively large transmitter (Tx) coil is numerically estimated in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 10 MHz based on human body exposure limits. Analytical calculations were first conducted to determine the worst-case coupling between a homogeneous cylindrical phantom with a radius of 0.65 m and a Tx coil positioned 0.1 m away with the radius ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m. Subsequently, three high-resolution anatomical models were employed to compute the peak induced field intensities with respect to various Tx coil locations and dimensions. Based on the computational results, scaling factors which correlate the cylindrical phantom and anatomical model results were derived. Next, the optimal operating frequency, at which the highest transmitter source power can be utilized without exceeding the exposure limits, is found to be around 2 MHz. Finally, a formulation is proposed to estimate the maximum obtainable power of WPT in a typical room scenario while adhering to the human body exposure compliance mandates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Xi Lin; De Santis, Valerio; Umenei, Aghuinyue Esai
2014-01-01
In this study, the maximum received power obtainable through wireless power transfer (WPT) by a small receiver (Rx) coil from a relatively large transmitter (Tx) coil is numerically estimated in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 10 MHz based on human body exposure limits. Analytical calculations were first conducted to determine the worst-case coupling between a homogeneous cylindrical phantom with a radius of 0.65 m and a Tx coil positioned 0.1 m away with the radius ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m. Subsequently, three high-resolution anatomical models were employed to compute the peak induced field intensities with respect to various Tx coil locations and dimensions. Based on the computational results, scaling factors which correlate the cylindrical phantom and anatomical model results were derived. Next, the optimal operating frequency, at which the highest transmitter source power can be utilized without exceeding the exposure limits, is found to be around 2 MHz. Finally, a formulation is proposed to estimate the maximum obtainable power of WPT in a typical room scenario while adhering to the human body exposure compliance mandates. (paper)
Advances in Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering Experiments and Their Theoretical Consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekteshi, Sadik; Kabashi, Skender; Kamishi, Burim
2007-01-01
An overview of critical analysis of the experimental data obtained from nucleon-nucleon scattering is given and investigated in this work. Comparison of the experimental data with results of recent partial wave analysis of Nijmegen group, VPI/GWU and Saclay is given. Potentials of Nijmegen, Bonn and Argonne group are discussed. Experimental data which lead to the break of charge symmetry, to the break of the charge independence and to the determination of the off-shell tensor force, are particularly emphasized. Disagreements which exist between theoretical calculations related to the contribution of particular mechanism in different reactions are pointed out. In this relation, still open problems to be solved and measurement that should be undertaken in the future are identified, as well
Al-Asadi, H A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Ajiya, M; Hitam, S; Saripan, M I; Mahdi, M A
2010-10-11
We develop a theoretical model that can be used to predict stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold in optical fibers that arises through the effect of Brillouin pump recycling technique. Obtained simulation results from our model are in close agreement with our experimental results. The developed model utilizes single mode optical fiber of different lengths as the Brillouin gain media. For 5-km long single mode fiber, the calculated threshold power for SBS is about 16 mW for conventional technique. This value is reduced to about 8 mW when the residual Brillouin pump is recycled at the end of the fiber. The decrement of SBS threshold is due to longer interaction lengths between Brillouin pump and Stokes wave.
Bende, Attila; Muntean, Cristina M
2014-03-01
The theoretical IR and Raman spectra of the guanine-cytosine DNA base pairs in Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen configurations were computed using DFT method with M06-2X meta-hybrid GGA exchange-correlation functional, including the anharmonic corrections and solvent effects. The results for harmonic frequencies and their anharmonic corrections were compared with our previously calculated values obtained with the B3PW91 hybrid GGA functional. Significant differences were obtained for the anharmonic corrections calculated with the two different DFT functionals, especially for the stretching modes, while the corresponding harmonic frequencies did not differ considerable. For the Hoogtseen case the H⁺ vibration between the G-C base pair can be characterized as an asymmetric Duffing oscillator and therefore unrealistic anharmonic corrections for normal modes where this proton vibration is involved have been obtained. The spectral modification due to the anharmonic corrections, solvent effects and the influence of sugar-phosphate group for the Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pair configurations, respectively, were also discussed. For the Watson-Crick case also the influence of the stacking interaction on the theoretical IR and Raman spectra was analyzed. Including the anharmonic correction in our normal mode analysis is essential if one wants to obtain correct assignments of the theoretical frequency values as compared with the experimental spectra.
Atahan-Evrenk, Sule; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-01-01
The theoretical prediction and characterization of the solid-state structure of organic semiconductors has tremendous potential for the discovery of new high performance materials. To date, the theoretical analysis mostly relied on the availability of crystal structures obtained through X-ray diffraction. However, the theoretical prediction of the crystal structures of organic semiconductor molecules remains a challenge. This review highlights some of the recent advances in the determination of structure-property relationships of the known organic semiconductor single-crystals and summarizes a few available studies on the prediction of the crystal structures of p-type organic semiconductors for transistor applications.
A theoretical model for predicting the Peak Cutting Force of conical picks
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Gao Kuidong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In order to predict the PCF (Peak Cutting Force of conical pick in rock cutting process, a theoretical model is established based on elastic fracture mechanics theory. The vertical fracture model of rock cutting fragment is also established based on the maximum tensile criterion. The relation between vertical fracture angle and associated parameters (cutting parameter and ratio B of rock compressive strength to tensile strength is obtained by numerical analysis method and polynomial regression method, and the correctness of rock vertical fracture model is verified through experiments. Linear regression coefficient between the PCF of prediction and experiments is 0.81, and significance level less than 0.05 shows that the model for predicting the PCF is correct and reliable. A comparative analysis between the PCF obtained from this model and Evans model reveals that the result of this prediction model is more reliable and accurate. The results of this work could provide some guidance for studying the rock cutting theory of conical pick and designing the cutting mechanism.
Theoretical predictions for alpha particle spectroscopic strengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Draayer, J.P.
1975-01-01
Multinucleon transfers induced in heavy-ion reactions of the type ( 6 Li,d) furnish a selective probe with which to study the interplay between rotational and clustering phenomena so characteristic of the structure of the light sd-shell nuclei. For these nuclei, theoretical predictions for inter-band as well as intra-band transfer strengths can be made using recently tabulated results for angular momentum dependent SU 3 inclusion R 3 relative spectroscopic strengths and angular momentum independent SU 6 inclusion SU 3 coefficients of fractional parentage. The pure SU 3 (oscillator)-SU 4 (supermultiplet) symmetry limit agrees well with results obtained using available eigenfunctions determined in large shell model calculations. In particular, the scalar nature of a transferred ''alpha''-cluster insures that the effect of spatial symmetry admixtures in the initial and final states of the target and residual nuclei are minimized. Sum rule quantities provide a measure of the probable effects of symmetry breaking. Strength variations within a band are expected; transfers to core excited states are often favored. Results extracted from exact finite range DWBA analyses of ( 6 Li,d) data on 16 , 18 O, 20 , 21 , 22 Ne, 24 , 25 Mg show some anomalies in our understanding of the structure and/or reaction mechanisms. (18 figures) (U.S.)
The formation and quenching of positronium in solution: some theoretical and experimental studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beling, C.D.
1981-05-01
Reviews are made of the present theoretical knowledge of the formation and quenching of positronium in solution. Formation is described on both the Ore model and the spur model. Quenching via pickoff and chemical processes is considered. The uncertainties that are presently found in the theoretical modelling are considered. Experimentally the positron lifetime technique is used in which positrons are emitted from a vitrified 22 Na source. The lifetime spectrum is obtained conventionally and is analysed by a modified form of the program POSITRONFIT EXTENDED. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Ch.M.; Choi, B.I.; Kwak, S.S.; Ji, P.K.; Kim, T.W.; Park, Y.W.; Yoon, B.K.
1993-01-01
A conversion operator between spectrum and exposure rate, using a portable HPGe detector for environmental radiation monitoring, was determined theoretically under the assumption of uniform distribution of radiation source on the ground surface. The measurement results were compared with those of a pressurized ionization chamber. The results obtained with the HPGe detector were slightly lower. The method can be easily applied to any gamma ray detector to obtain a spectrum - exposure-rate conversion factor for computing the exposure rate of environmental gamma radiation. (N.T.) 15 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs
Advanced liquid waste processing technologies: Theoretical versus actual application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barker, Tracy A.
1992-01-01
This paper provides an overview of Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. (CNSI) experience with turn-key chromate removal at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Plant. Theoretical and actual experiences are addressed on topics such as processing duration, laboratory testing, equipment requirements, chromate removal, waste generation, and waste processing. Chromate salts are used in industrial recirculation cooling water systems as a corrosion inhibitor. However, chromates are toxic at concentrations necessary for surface inhibition. As a result, Chem-Nuclear was contracted to perform turn-key chromate removal and waste disposal by demineralization. This project was unique in that prior to on-site mobilization, a composite sample of chromated waste was shipped to CNSI laboratories for treatment through a laboratory scale system. Removal efficiency, process media requirements, and waste processing methodology were determined from this laboratory testing. Samples of the waste resulting from this testing were processed by dewatering and solidification, respectively. TCLP tests were performed on the actual processed waste, and based on the TCLP results, pre-approval for media waste disposal was obtained. (author)
Quintom cosmology: Theoretical implications and observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Yifu; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, Mohammad R.; Xia Junqing
2010-01-01
We review the paradigm of quintom cosmology. This scenario is motivated by the observational indications that the equation-of-state of dark energy across the cosmological constant boundary is mildly favored, although the data are still far from being conclusive. As a theoretical setup we introduce a no-go theorem existing in quintom cosmology, and based on it we discuss the conditions for the equation-of-state of dark energy realizing the quintom scenario. The simplest quintom model can be achieved by introducing two scalar fields with one being quintessence and the other phantom. Based on the double-field quintom model we perform a detailed analysis of dark energy perturbations and we discuss their effects on current observations. This type of scenario usually suffers from a manifest problem due to the existence of a ghost degree-of-freedom, and thus we review various alternative realizations of the quintom paradigm. The developments in particle physics and string theory provide potential clues indicating that a quintom scenario may be obtained from scalar systems with higher derivative terms, as well as from non-scalar systems. Additionally, we construct a quintom realization in the framework of braneworld cosmology, where the cosmic acceleration and the phantom divide crossing result from the combined effects of the field evolution on the brane and the competition between four- and five-dimensional gravity. Finally, we study the outsets and fates of a universe in quintom cosmology. In a scenario with null energy condition violation one may obtain a bouncing solution at early times and therefore avoid the Big Bang singularity. Furthermore, if this occurs periodically, we obtain a realization of an oscillating universe. Lastly, we comment on several open issues in quintom cosmology and their connection to future investigations.
Theoretical interpretation of a case study: Acoustic resonance in an archaeological site
Carrera, Jorge; Beristain, Sergio
2002-11-01
It is well-known that the stairways of some Mexican archaeological sites, like Chichen-Itza or Teotihuacan, present an interesting sound reflection and resonance phenomenon which causes a special audible effect. In this paper, mathematical modeling of this situation is presented, and the practical phenomenon is discussed from a theoretical standpoint. More than an end in itself, the idea is, once this validated model is obtained, to use the results for the analysis of a more extensive architectural environment in order to establish whether this kind of phenomenon would have been purposely introduced in the design of the site. This will be presented in future publications.
The results obtained by INR-Pitesti to an international in-situ intercomparison exercise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrin, Relu; Dulama, Cristian; Toma, Alexandru
2008-01-01
Full text: The determination of soil contamination, dose rate measurements and in-situ gamma spectrometry are well established and widely used measurement procedures, especially after large scale nuclear incidents. To support decision makers and first responders with a more comprehensive and accurate overview immediately after a large scale nuclear or radiological emergency, as releases from a nuclear power plant or a terrorist attack with a dirty bomb, a fast and clear presentation of measurement data is indispensable. In 2007, the Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC (Seibersdorf) in cooperation with IAEA and the Austrian NBC Defense School organized an international measurement campaign, 'In-Situ Intercomparison Scenario' ISIS 2007, with the focus on In-Situ Gamma Spectrometry and Dose Rate Measurements in Emergency Situations. 56 teams from 25 countries, worldwide, took part to this exercise. The only Romanian team was 'CROWN'. The CROWN Laboratory is part of the Radiation Protection Laboratory of the Institute for Nuclear Research - Pitesti, certified for characterization of radioactive wastes and nuclear materials. The paper presents results obtained during different tasks of the exercise: 'Dose rate mapping'; 'Localization - Drive by'; 'Simulation of a contamination'; 'Identification Shielded; 'Identification/Quantification'; 'Buried sources; 'Environmental measurement'. (authors)
Theoretical and laboratory investigations of flow through fractures in crystalline rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witherspoon, P.A.; Watkins, D.J.; Tsang, Y.W.
1981-01-01
A theoretical model developed for flow through a deformable fracture subject to stresses was successfully tested against laboratory experiments. The model contains no arbitrary parameters and can be used to predict flow rates through a single fracture if the fractional fracture contact area can be estimated and if stress-deformation data are available. These data can be obtained from laboratory or in situ tests. The model has considerable potential for practical application. The permeability of ultralarge samples of fractured crystalline rock as a function of stresses was measured. Results from tests on a pervasively fractured 1-m-diameter specimen of granitic rock showed that drastically simplifying assumptions must be used to apply theoretical models to this type of rock mass. Simple models successfully reproduce the trend of reduced permeability as stress is applied in a direction normal to the fracture plane. The tests also demonstrated how fracture conductivity increases as a result of dilatancy associated with shear displacements. The effect of specimen size on the hydraulic properties of fractured rock was also investigated. Permeability tests were performed on specimens of charcoal black granite containing a single fracture subjected to normal stress. Results are presented for tests performed on a 0.914-m-diameter specimen and on the same specimen after it had been reduced to 0.764 m in diameter. The data show that fracture conductivity is sensitive to stress history and sample disturbance
Theoretical and experimental cross sections for neutron reactions on 64Zinc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutherford, D.A.
1987-01-01
Accurate measurements of the 64 Zn (n,2n) 64 Cu and 64 Zn (n,p) 63 Zn cross sections at 14.8 MeV have been made using a Texas Nuclear Neutron Generator and the activation technique. A NaI(T1) spectrometer (using two 6'' x 6'' NaI detectors/crystals) was used to measure the gamma radiation emitted in coincidence from the positron-emitting decay products. The measurements were made relative to 65 Cu (n,2n) /64/Cu and 63 Cu (n,2n) 62 Cu cross sections, which have similar half-lives, radiation emission, and were previously measured to high accuracy (2 percent). The value obtained for the (n,2n) measurement was 199 /+-/ 6 millibarns, and a value of 176 /+-/ 4.5 millibarns was obtained for the (n,p) measurement. In concert, a theoretical analysis of neutron induced reactions on /64/Zn was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory in the GNASH code over an energy range of 100 keV to 20 MeV. Calculations included width fluctuation corrections, direct reaction contributions, and preequilibrium corrections above 6 MeV. Neutron optical model potentials were determined for zinc. The theoretical values agree with the new 14.8 MeV measurements approximately within experimental error, with calculations of 201 millibarns for the (n,2n) cross section and 170 millibarns for the (n,p) cross section. Results from the analysis will be made available in National Evaluated Nuclear Data Format (ENDF/B) for fusion energy applications. 50 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulo, Osvaldir; Carlos, Luiz R.J.; Mendes, Milton
2008-01-01
Full text: The aim of the present work is the comparison of the dose rates values obtained from dosimeter films with the values obtained from electronic dosimeters used by radiological protection technician involved in practices with fluorine-18 production in CV-28 cyclotron at IEN/CNEN. The motivation for this work was the increase on the demand of this radiopharmaceutical. Nowadays there is an increase demand on the number of clinics and hospitals which had started to use the technique of radiodiagnostic using positron-emission tomography (PET). Therefore, the produced radionuclide activities (physics quantity) and also the complexity of the practices of radiological protection in the areas of that facility had increased a lot. The conventional statistical methods will be used to evaluate the results obtained in the analysis of the data obtained in the reading of the dosimeters. This comparative method is however a first step to taking decisions regarding radiological protection service. Therefore that the radiometric surveys of routine are taken in consideration, as well as the information from the technician of radiological protection that is working in those areas. All this data will give support to improve and implement methods and practices on the accelerators' facilities. In addition, the use of these electronic dosimeters will makes possible the technician read these dose rates received immediately during the practices and use these information you make decisions. In case of dose rates values to present above the expected the practice will be ploughed. Another point to be considered is that this work will propitiate the future updates of the procedures designated to those practices and to conduct at the radiological protection optimization. (author)
Present status of the theoretical relativistic plasma SHF electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzelev, M.V.; Rukhadze, A.A.
2000-01-01
Paper presents a review of theoretical investigations into powerful sources of SHF waves grounded on the forced emission of relativistic electron beams in plasma wave guides and resonator. Emission sources operating under amplification of a certain inlet signal and under generation mode were studied. Two mechanisms of forced emission: resonance Cherenkov radiation of relativistic electron beams in plasma and nonresonance Pierce emission resulting from evolution of high-frequency Pierce instability, were studied. Paper discusses theoretical problems only, all evaluations and calculations are made for the parameters of the exact experiments, the theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data. Factors affecting formation of spectrum of waves excited by relativistic electron beam in plasma systems are discussed [ru
A theoretical and spectroscopic study of conformational structures of piroxicam
Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Martins, José A.; Pessine, Francisco B. T.; Custodio, Rogério
2010-02-01
Piroxicam (PRX) has been widely studied in an attempt to elucidate the causes and mechanisms of its side effects, mainly the photo-toxicity. In this paper fluorescence spectra in non-protic solvents and different polarities were carried out along with theoretical calculations. Preliminary potential surfaces of the keto and enol forms were obtained at AM1 level of theory providing the most stable conformers, which had their structure re-optimized through the B3LYP/CEP-31G(d,p) method. From the optimized structures, the electronic spectra were calculated using the TD-DFT method in vacuum and including the solvent effect through the PCM method and a single water molecule near PRX. A new potential surface was constructed to the enol tautomer at DFT level and the most stable conformers were submitted to the QST2 calculations. The experimental data showed that in apolar media, the solution fluorescence is raised. Based on conformational analysis for the two tautomers, keto and enol, the results indicated that the PRX-enol is the main tautomer related to the drug fluorescence, which is reinforced by the spectra results, as well as the interconvertion barrier obtained from the QST2 calculations. The results suggest that the PRX one of the enol conformers presents great possibility of involvement in the photo-toxicity mechanisms.
González-Baró, Ana C.; Pis-Diez, Reinaldo; Parajón-Costa, Beatriz S.; Rey, Nicolás A.
2012-01-01
A complete and detailed study of the hydrazone obtained from condensation of antituberculous isoniazid (hydrazide of the isonicotinic acid, INH) and o-vanillin (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, o-HVa) is performed. It includes structural and spectroscopic analyses, comparing experimental and theoretical results. The compound was obtained as a chloride of the pyridinic salt (INHOVA +Cl -) but it will be referred as INHOVA for the sake of simplicity. The conformational space was searched and optimized geometries were determined both in gas phase and including solvent effects. Vibrational (IR and Raman), electronic and NMR spectra were registered and assigned with the help of computational methods based on the Density Functional Theory. Isoniazid hydrazones are good candidates for therapeutic agents against tuberculosis with conserved efficiency and lower toxicity and resistance than parent INH.
Theoretical thermal dosimetry produced by an annular phased array system in CT-based patient models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulsen, K.D.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Lynch, D.R.
1984-01-01
Theoretical calculations for the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the resulting temperature distributions produced by an annular phased array (APA) type system are made. The finite element numerical method is used in the formulation of both the electromagnetic (EM) and the thermal boundary value problems. A number of detailed patient models based on CT-scan data from the pelvic, visceral, and thoracic regions are generated to stimulate a variety of tumor locations and surrounding normal tissues. The SAR values from the EM solution are input into the bioheat transfer equation, and steady-rate temperature distributions are calculated for a wide variety of blood flow rates. Based on theoretical modeling, the APA shows no preferential heating of superficial over deep-seated tumors. However, in most cases satisfactory thermal profiles (therapeutic volume near 60%) are obtained in all three regions of the human trunk only for tumors with little or no blood flow. Unsatisfactory temperature patterns (therapeutic volume <50%) are found for tumors with moderate to high perfusion rates. These theoretical calculations should aid the clinician in the evaluation of the effectiveness of APA type devices in heating tumors located in the trunk region
New theoretical results in heavy quark hadroproduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nason, P.
1992-01-01
We describe the status of the heavy quark hadroproduction theory. In particular, we discuss recent developments on production of heavy quarks in the high energy limit, and the results of a new calculation to next-to-leading accuracy of the fully exclusive parton cross section for heavy quark production. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbosa, Alessandra Souza [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Varella, Márcio T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1731, 05508-090 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sanchez, Sergio d’A.; Bettega, Márcio H. F., E-mail: bettega@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Ameixa, João; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Blanco, Francisco [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); and others
2016-08-28
In this work, we report theoretical and experimental cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by chlorobenzene (ClB). The theoretical integral and differential cross sections (DCSs) were obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials (SMCPP) and the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The calculations with the SMCPP method were done in the static-exchange (SE) approximation, for energies above 12 eV, and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation, for energies up to 12 eV. The calculations with the IAM-SCAR method covered energies up to 500 eV. The experimental differential cross sections were obtained in the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer VG-SEELS 400, in Lisbon, for electron energies from 8.0 eV to 50 eV and angular range from 7{sup ∘} to 110{sup ∘}. From the present theoretical integral cross section (ICS) we discuss the low-energy shape-resonances present in chlorobenzene and compare our computed resonance spectra with available electron transmission spectroscopy data present in the literature. Since there is no other work in the literature reporting differential cross sections for this molecule, we compare our theoretical and experimental DCSs with experimental data available for the parent molecule benzene.
Aso, T; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M; Kinoshita, H; Takahashi, T
2002-01-01
The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the co...
Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System CERN LHC and SNS Projects
Delcayre, F; Hamber, F; Hilbert, B; Monneret, E; Toia, J L
2006-01-01
Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high‐capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC wil...
Structure investigations of ferromagnetic Co-Ni-Al alloys obtained by powder metallurgy.
Maziarz, W; Dutkiewicz, J; Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, L; Santamarta, R; Cesari, E
2010-03-01
Elemental powders of Co, Ni and Al in the proper amounts to obtain Co(35)Ni(40)Al(25) and Co(40)Ni(35)Al(25) nominal compositions were ball milled in a high-energy mill for 80 h. After 40 h of milling, the formation of a Co (Ni, Al) solid solution with f.c.c. structure was verified by a change of the original lattice parameter and crystallite size. Analytical transmission electron microscopy observations and X-ray diffraction measurements of the final Co (Ni, Al) solid solution showed that the crystallite size scattered from 4 to 8 nm and lattice parameter a = 0.36086 nm. The chemical EDS point analysis of the milled powder particles allowed the calculation of the e/a ratio and revealed a high degree of chemical homogeneity of the powders. Hot pressing in vacuum of the milled powders resulted in obtaining compacts with a density of about 70% of the theoretical one. An additional heat treatment increased the density and induced the martensitic transformation in a parent phase. Selected area diffraction patterns and dark field images obtained from the heat-treated sample revealed small grains around 300 nm in diameter consisting mainly of the ordered gamma phase (gamma'), often appearing as twins, and a small amount of the L1(0) ordered martensite.
Desublimation process: verification and applications of a theoretical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eby, R.S.
1979-01-01
A theoretical model simulating the simultaneous heat and mass transfer which takes place during the desublimation of a gas to a solid is presented. Desublimer column loading profiles to experimentally verify the model were obtained using a gamma scintillation technique. The data indicate that, if the physical parameters of the desublimed frost material are known, the model can accurately predict the desublimation phenomenon. The usefulness of the model in different engineering applications is also addressed
Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R. [Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection, Cracow (Poland)
1995-12-31
An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.
A theoretical-spectroscopy, ab initio-based study of the electronic ground state of 121SbH3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Carvajal, Miguel; Yachmenev, Andrey; Thiel, Walter; Jensen, Per
2010-01-01
For the stibine isotopologue 121 SbH 3 , we report improved theoretical calculations of the vibrational energies below 8000 cm -1 and simulations of the rovibrational spectrum in the 0-8000 cm -1 region. The calculations are based on a refined ab initio potential energy surface and on a new dipole moment surface obtained at the coupled cluster CCSD(T) level. The theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data in order to validate the ab initio surfaces and the TROVE computational method [Yurchenko SN, Thiel W, Jensen P. J Mol Spectrosc 2007;245:126-40] for calculating rovibrational energies and simulating rovibrational spectra of arbitrary molecules in isolated electronic states. A number of predicted vibrational energies of 121 SbH 3 are provided in order to stimulate new experimental investigations of stibine. The local-mode character of the vibrations in stibine is demonstrated through an analysis of the results in terms of local-mode theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sahar Rostami
2017-03-01
Full Text Available BackgroundBody image is a determinant of individual attractiveness and physical activity among the young people. This study was aimed to assess the association of Trans-theoretical model based exercise behavior change with body image evaluation among the female Iranian students.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Sanandaj city, Iran in 2016. Using multistage sampling method, a total of 816 high school female students were included in the study. They completed a three-section questionnaire, including demographic information, Trans-theoretical model constructs and body image evaluation. The obtained data were fed into SPSS version 21.0. ResultsThe results showed more than 60% of participants were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages of exercise behavior. The means of perceived self-efficacy, barriers and benefits were found to have a statistically significant difference during the stages of exercise behavior change (P
Theoretical skin-friction law in a turbulent boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheskidov, A.
2005-01-01
We study transitional and turbulent boundary layers using a turbulent velocity profile equation recently derived from the Navier-Stokes-alpha and Leray-alpha models. From this equation we obtain a theoretical prediction of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce the maximal value of c f max =0.0063 for turbulent velocity profiles. A two-parameter family of solutions to the equation matches experimental data in the transitional boundary layers with different free-stream turbulence intensity, while one-parameter family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient law, matches experimental data in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers
Towards A Theoretical Biology: Reminiscences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
engaged in since the start of my career at the University of Chicago. Theoretical biology was ... research on theoretical problems in biology. Waddington, an ... aimed at stimulating the development of such a theoretical biology. The role the ...
Theoretical study on flow-induced vibration of a cylindrical weir due to fluid discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, Katsuhisa; Ito, Tomohiro; Hirota, Kazuo; Kodama, Tetsuhiko
1994-01-01
In a FBR, the inside of the reactor vessel is cooled by liquid sodium. Liquid sodium is supplied to the upper plenum from its bottom and discharges over the top of the cylindrical weir down to the lower plenum. The weir is so thin in order to decrease the thermal stress on it that the fluid--structure interaction becomes predominant. A fluidelastic vibration of the weir due to fluid discharge was discovered in a French FBR. In this study, a theoretical model was developed on the ''fluid--elastic mode'' instability of a cylindrical weir due to fluid discharge from the upper plenum to the lower plenum. In the analysis, the fluctuation of both the discharge flow rate over a weir due to the vibration of the cylindrical shell and the pressure in the lower plenum due to fluid discharge were formulated. Instability criteria was derived from the added damping ratio due to fluid discharge using modal analysis. The natural modes and modal mass of the weir were obtained by the analysis using the FEM code taking the fluid - structure interaction into consideration. The theoretical instability range in terms of the fall height and the flow rate is compared with the experimental results. The theoretical values showed a good agreement with the experimental ones
Room temperature thin foil SLIM-cut using an epoxy paste: experimental versus theoretical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellanger, Pierre; Serra, Joao; Bouchard, Pierre-Olivier; Bernacki, Marc
2015-01-01
The stress induced lift-off method (SLIM) -cut technique allows the detachment of thin silicon foils using a stress inducing layer. In this work, results of SLIM-cut foils obtained using an epoxy stress inducing layer at room temperature are presented. Numerical analyses were performed in order to study and ascertain the important experimental parameters. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. Indeed, large area (5 × 5 cm 2 ) foils were successfully detached at room temperature using an epoxy thickness of 900 μm and a curing temperature of 150 °C. Moreover, three foils (5 × 3 cm 2 ) with thickness 135, 121 and 110 μm were detached from the same monocrystalline substrate. Effective minority carrier lifetimes of 46, 25 and 20 μs were measured using quasi-steady-state photoconductance technique in these foils after iodine ethanol surface passivation. (paper)
Theoretical study of fuel element reliability in the BRIG-300 fast reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulikov, I.S.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Tverkovkin, B.E.
1983-01-01
The theoretical results on studies of the reliability of cermet symmetrically heated fuel elements under conditions of the BRIG-300 fast gas cooled reactor are presented. The investigations have been conducted at the Nuclear Power Engineering Institute of the Byelorussian Academy of Sciences. Two variants of the fuel elements are considered :the fuel element with the gas gap between fuel and can and the fuel element with tight contact between cermet fuel and can. The estimated data on can resistance, swelling of the fuel rods and cans, strains and stresses in cans, change of the gap and its thermal coductivity during the reactor operation are obtained. The results of the analysis show that cermet fuel has sufficient reliability upon oparational conditions of the reactor with dissociating gas coolant in a steady-state regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Bramanti
1992-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we deal with a uniformly elliptic operator of the kind: Lu Au + Vu, where the principal part A is in divergence form, and V is a function assumed in a “Kato class”. This operator has been studied in different contexts, especially using probabilistic techniques. The aim of the present work is to give a unified and simplified presentation of the results obtained with non probabilistic methods for the operator L on a bounded Lipschitz domain. These results regard: continuity of the solutions of Lu=0; Harnack inequality; estimates on the Green's function and L-harmonic measure; boundary behavior of positive solutions of Lu=0, in particular a “Fatou's theorem”.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report is a survey of the studies done in the Theoretical Physics Division of the Nuclear Physics Institute; the subjects studied in theoretical nuclear physics were the few-nucleon problem, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, weak interactions, intermediate energy and high energy physics. In this last field, the subjects studied were field theory, group theory, symmetry and strong interactions [fr
Theoretical Studies of Aqueous Systems above 25 deg C. 2. The Iron - Water System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewis, Derek
1971-09-15
A theoretical study of the iron-water system at elevated temperatures is reported. Values for the equilibrium constants for the principle reactions in the system up to 374 deg C, obtained by a method described previously, are given and equilibrium diagrams are presented that illustrate the results for 50, 150, 250 and 350 deg C. The results indicate that, among other things, the most important metal-bearing ions in the iron-water system at elevated temperatures are Fe(OH){sub 2}+, Fe(OH)+ and HFeO{sub 2}- The conditions for the stability of solid iron oxides are also examined. Finally, some limitations of the thermodynamic approach to corrosion problems are discussed briefly
Catersels, R.; Helms, R.W.; Batenburg, R.
2010-01-01
This paper describes the differences between the theoretical world of ERP researchers and the practical world of ERP consultants. A survey was held among 129 ERP consultants to explore their opinion and experience with regard to a number of subjects that have been researched in many papers, such as
Experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of small scale combustion
Xu, Bo
to describe the competition between the mass transport in gas phase and the heat conduction in gas and solid phases was defined. Experimental observation and theoretical analysis suggested that the flame-wall coupling significantly increased the effective Lewis number and led to a new mechanism to promote the thermal diffusion instability. Due to the short flow residence time in small scale combustion, reactants, and oxidizers may not be able to be fully premixed before combustion. As such, non-premixed combustion plays an important role. Non-premixed mixing layer combustion within a constrained mesoscale channel was studied. Depending on the flow rate, it was found that there were two different flame regimes, an unsteady bimodal flame regime and a flame street regime with multiple stable triple flamelets. This multiple triple flame structure was identified experimentally for the first time. A scaling analytical model was developed to qualitatively explain the mechanism of flame streets. The effects of flow velocity, wall temperature, and Lewis number on the distance between flamelets and the diffusion flame length were also investigated. The results showed that the occurrence of flame street regimes was a combined effect of heat loss, curvature, diffusion, and dilution. To complete this thesis, experiments were conducted to measure the OH concentration using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) in a confined mesoscale combustor. Some preliminary results have been obtained for the OH concentration of flamelets in a flame street. When the scale of the micro reactor is further reduced, the rarefied gas effect may become significant. In this thesis, a new concentration slip model to describe the rarefied gas effect on the species transport in microscale chemical reactors was obtained. The present model is general and recovers the existing models in the limiting cases. The analytical results showed the concentration slip was dominated by two different mechanisms, the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verma, M; Patidar, D; Sharma, K B; Saxena, N S
2015-01-01
In this paper an effort is made to correlate temperature dependent effective thermal conductivity measured by experimental method to theoretical results obtained from different models. MWNT/PMMA polymer nanocomposites were prepared by solution casting method, with different wt% of MWNT (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 wt%) dispersed in the PMMA matrix. The effective thermal conductivity from 30 °C to 110 °C is measured by Hot Disk Thermal Constant Analyser, based on transient plane source technique. Experimental study reveals that effective thermal conductivity increases with increasing concentration of MWNT in PMMA and increases exponentially at high temperatures for high (5, 10) wt% samples. This behavior of effective thermal conductivity is explained in terms of the interactions between polymer–MWNT and MWNT–MWNT. Consequently these results were found to be in agreement with theoretical models such as Series, Parallel, Lewis/Neilson and empirical formula. The discrepancy found in Lewis/Neilson model at high temperature for high wt% of MWNT in PMMA is due to some change in values of parameters incorporated in the model. (paper)
Experimental and theoretical investigation of bezafibrate binding to serum albumins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gałęcki, Krystian, E-mail: kgalecki87@gmail.com [Technical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Hunter, Kelsey [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Daňková, Gabriela [Masarykova Univerzita, Brno (Czech Republic); Rivera, Elsy [University of Houston-Downtown, Houston (United States); Tung, Lo Wing [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Mc Sherry, Kenneth [Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland)
2016-09-15
The purpose of this investigation was to provide insight into the possible mechanism of the intermolecular interactions between antilipemic agent bezafibrate and serum albumins (SAs) including human (HSA) and bovine (BSA). The aim was to indicate the most probable sight of these interactions. Both experimental (spectroscopic) and theoretical methods were applied. It was determined that bezafibrate binds to SAs in one specific binding site, the fatty acid binding site 6. The results obtained from the steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence experiments suggested that existing two distinct stable conformations of the proteins with different exposure to the quencher. The dominate conformer of HSA and BSA characterized by the Stern–Volmer quenching constant (from ratio F{sub 0}/F) equal to 1.24·10{sup 4} and 8.48·10{sup 3} M{sup −1} at 298 K, respectively. The docking results and calculated thermodynamics parameters may be suggested that the binding process is spontaneous and might involve van der Waals and hydrogen bonding forces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satish Kumar, N.V.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Pal, A.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.
2004-01-01
A theoretical and experimental investigation has been carried out to study natural circulation characteristics of an Indian PHWR under reduced inventory conditions. The theoretical model incorporates a quasi-steady state analysis of natural circulation at different system inventories. It predicts the system flow rate under single-phase and two-phase conditions and the inventory at which reflux condensation occurs. The model predictions were compared with test data obtained from FISBE (facility for integral system behaviour experiments), which simulates the thermal hydraulic behaviour of the Indian 220 MWe PHWR. The experimental results were found to be in close agreement with the predictions. It was also found that the natural circulation could be oscillatory under reduced inventory conditions. (orig.)
Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)
2016-04-18
Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.
Infantilism: Theoretical Construct and Operationalization
Sabelnikova, Y. V.; Khmeleva, N. L.
2018-01-01
The aim of this article is to define and operationalize the construct of infantilism. The methods of theoretical research involve analysis and synthesis. Age and content criteria are analyzed for childhood and adulthood. Infantile traits in an adult are described. Results: The characteristics of adult infantilism in the modern world are defined,…
Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights
Padmanabhan, Thanu
2015-01-01
This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Bogachev
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10–15 mm in height were obtained. Consolidation conditions such as pressure and voltage were varied in some ranges to determine the optimal compaction regime. Three different concentrations of yttria were used to identify its effect on the properties of the samples. It is shown that the utilized ultra-rapid consolidation process in combination with high transmitted energy allows obtaining high density compacts, retaining the initial structure with minimal grain growth. The experimental results indicate some heterogeneity of the structure which may occur in the external layers of the tested samples due to various thermal and electromagnetic in-processing effects. The choice of the optimal parameters of the consolidation enables obtaining samples of acceptable quality.
Bogachev, Igor; Yudin, Artem; Grigoryev, Evgeniy; Chernov, Ivan; Staltsov, Maxim; Khasanov, Oleg; Olevsky, Eugene
2015-11-02
Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10-15 mm in height were obtained. Consolidation conditions such as pressure and voltage were varied in some ranges to determine the optimal compaction regime. Three different concentrations of yttria were used to identify its effect on the properties of the samples. It is shown that the utilized ultra-rapid consolidation process in combination with high transmitted energy allows obtaining high density compacts, retaining the initial structure with minimal grain growth. The experimental results indicate some heterogeneity of the structure which may occur in the external layers of the tested samples due to various thermal and electromagnetic in-processing effects. The choice of the optimal parameters of the consolidation enables obtaining samples of acceptable quality.
Theoretical predictions for pp and panti p elastic scattering in the TeV energy domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourrely, C.; Martin, A.
1984-01-01
We present theoretical predictions on total cross-sections and elastic scattering in the TeV energy domain obtained from the present experimental situation at the ISR and the panti p Collider. (orig.)
Structural and theoretical investigations of 3,4,5-triamino-1,2,4-triazolium salts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drake, Gregory W. [Propulsion Research Laboratory XD22, Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 (United States); Hawkins, Tommy W.; Hall, Leslie A.; Boatz, Jerry A.; Brand, Adam J. [AFRL/PRSP Space and Missile Propulsion Division, 10 East Saturn Boulevard, Edwards AFB, CA 93524 (United States)
2005-10-01
Reactions using the high nitrogen heterocycle 3,4,5-triamino-1,2,4-triazole (guanazine) with strong acids (HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, and ''HN(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}'') resulted in a family of highly stable salts. All of the salts were characterized using spectroscopic as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The X-ray structures were compared to that obtained from theoretical calculations (MP2/6-311+G(d, p) level). Initial safety testing (impact, friction) was carried out on all of the new materials. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect
H.Ya. Hlukha
2014-01-01
The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine...
Theoretical and observational review of results on nova explosions occurring on ONeMg white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starrfield, S.
1986-01-01
The nova outburst is the second most violent explosion that occurs in a galaxy. This review presents the recent observational and theoretical studies that have demonstrated that there exist two classes of nova outburst. One type of nova occurs on a CO white dwarf and the other type of nova occurs on an ONeMg white dwarf. The second class of outbursts are much more violent and occur much more frequently then the first class of outbursts. Hydrodynamic simulations of both kinds of outbursts are in excellent agreement with the observations. 51 refs
Theoretical Provision of Tax Transformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feofanova Iryna V.
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the questions, giving answers to which is necessary for scientific substantiation of the tax transformation in Ukraine. The article analyzes the structural-logical relationships of the theories, providing substantiation of tax systems and transformation of them. Various views on the level of both the tax burden and the distribution of the tax burden between big and small business have been systematized. The issues that require theoretical substantiation when choosing a model of tax system have been identified. It is determined that shares of both indirect and direct taxes and their rates can be substantiated by calculations on the basis of statistical data. The results of the presented research can be used to develop the algorithm for theoretical substantiation of tax transformation
Theoretical studies of Pt-Ti nanoparticles for potential use as PEMFC electrocatalysts.
Jennings, Paul C; Pollet, Bruno G; Johnston, Roy L
2012-03-07
A theoretical investigation is presented of alloying platinum with titanium to form binary Pt-Ti nanoalloys as an alternative to the expensive pure platinum catalysts commonly used for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell cathode electrocatalysts. Density Functional Theory calculations are performed to investigate compositional effects on structural properties as well as Oxygen Reduction Reaction kinetics and poisoning effects. High symmetry A(32)-B(6) clusters are studied to investigate structural properties. From these structures binding energies of hydroxyl and carbon monoxide are studied on a range of sites on the surface of the clusters. Promising results are obtained suggesting that the bimetallic Pt-Ti nanoalloys may exhibit enhanced properties compared to pure platinum catalysts.
Theoretical and experimental stress analyses of ORNL thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder model 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwaltney, R.C.; Bolt, S.E.; Corum, J.M.; Bryson, J.W.
1975-06-01
The third in a series of four thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder models was tested, and the experimentally determined elastic stress distributions were compared with theoretical predictions obtained from a thin-shell finite-element analysis. The models are idealized thin-shell structures consisting of two circular cylindrical shells that intersect at right angles. There are no transitions, reinforcements, or fillets in the junction region. This series of model tests serves two basic purposes: the experimental data provide design information directly applicable to nozzles in cylindrical vessels; and the idealized models provide test results for use in developing and evaluating theoretical analyses applicable to nozzles in cylindrical vessels and to thin piping tees. The cylinder of model 3 had a 10 in. OD and the nozzle had a 1.29 in. OD, giving a d 0 /D 0 ratio of 0.129. The OD/thickness ratios for the cylinder and the nozzle were 50 and 7.68 respectively. Thirteen separate loading cases were analyzed. In each, one end of the cylinder was rigidly held. In addition to an internal pressure loading, three mutually perpendicular force components and three mutually perpendicular moment components were individually applied at the free end of the cylinder and at the end of the nozzle. The experimental stress distributions for all the loadings were obtained using 158 three-gage strain rosettes located on the inner and outer surfaces. The loading cases were also analyzed theoretically using a finite-element shell analysis developed at the University of California, Berkeley. The analysis used flat-plate elements and considered five degrees of freedom per node in the final assembled equations. The comparisons between theory and experiment show reasonably good agreement for this model. (U.S.)
Theoretical and experimental stress analyses of ORNL thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder model 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwaltney, R.C.; Bolt, S.E.; Bryson, J.W.
1975-06-01
The last in a series of four thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder models was tested, and the experimentally determined elastic stress distributions were compared with theoretical predictions obtained from a thin-shell finite-element analysis. The models in the series are idealized thin-shell structures consisting of two circular cylindrical shells that intersect at right angles. There are no transitions, reinforcements, or fillets in the junction region. This series of model tests serves two basic purposes: (1) the experimental data provide design information directly applicable to nozzles in cylindrical vessels, and (2) the idealized models provide test results for use in developing and evaluating theoretical analyses applicable to nozzles in cylindrical vessels and to thin piping tees. The cylinder of model 4 had an outside diameter of 10 in., and the nozzle had an outside diameter of 1.29 in., giving a d 0 /D 0 ratio of 0.129. The OD/thickness ratios were 50 and 20.2 for the cylinder and nozzle respectively. Thirteen separate loading cases were analyzed. For each loading condition one end of the cylinder was rigidly held. In addition to an internal pressure loading, three mutually perpendicular force components and three mutually perpendicular moment components were individually applied at the free end of the cylinder and at the end of the nozzle. The experimental stress distributions for each of the 13 loadings were obtained using 157 three-gage strain rosettes located on the inner and outer surfaces. Each of the 13 loading cases was also analyzed theoretically using a finite-element shell analysis developed at the University of California, Berkeley. The analysis used flat-plate elements and considered five degrees of freedom per node in the final assembled equations. The comparisons between theory and experiment show reasonably good agreement for this model. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vindigni, A.; Bogani, L.; Gatteschi, D.; Sessoli, R.; Rettori, A.; Novak, M.A.
2004-01-01
We investigate the relaxation time, τ, of a dilute Glauber kinetic Ising chain obtained by ac susceptibility and SQUID magnetometry on a Co(II)-organic radical Ising 1D ferrimagnet doped with Zn(II). Theoretically we predicted a crossover in the temperature-dependence of τ, when the average segment is of the same order of the correlation length. Comparing the experimental results with theory we conclude that in the investigated temperature range the correlation length exceeds the finite length also in the pure sample
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vindigni, A. E-mail: alessandro.vindigni@unifi.it; Bogani, L.; Gatteschi, D.; Sessoli, R.; Rettori, A.; Novak, M.A
2004-05-01
We investigate the relaxation time, {tau}, of a dilute Glauber kinetic Ising chain obtained by ac susceptibility and SQUID magnetometry on a Co(II)-organic radical Ising 1D ferrimagnet doped with Zn(II). Theoretically we predicted a crossover in the temperature-dependence of {tau}, when the average segment is of the same order of the correlation length. Comparing the experimental results with theory we conclude that in the investigated temperature range the correlation length exceeds the finite length also in the pure sample.
Vindigni, A.; Bogani, L.; Gatteschi, D.; Sessoli, R.; Rettori, A.; Novak, M. A.
2004-05-01
We investigate the relaxation time, τ, of a dilute Glauber kinetic Ising chain obtained by ac susceptibility and SQUID magnetometry on a Co(II)-organic radical Ising 1D ferrimagnet doped with Zn(II). Theoretically we predicted a crossover in the temperature-dependence of τ, when the average segment is of the same order of the correlation length. Comparing the experimental results with theory we conclude that in the investigted temperature range the correlation length exceeds the finite length also in the pure sample.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkind, G.M.; Kochetkov, N.K.
1986-01-01
A theoretical conformational analysis has been made of the four tetrasaccharide repeating units of the polysaccharide of Shigella flexneri, serotype Y. The interdependence of the conformation states of the neighboring disaccharide units and the oligosaccharides has been investigated. The distribution of the tetrasaccharides over the conformations in solution obtained by calculating the free energies of the optimum structures is given. It has been shown that a substantial correction of the results relating to oligosaccharide chains is achieved when the entropy factors is taken into account
Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System: CERN LHC and SNS Projects
Delcayre, F.; Courty, J.-C.; Hamber, F.; Hilbert, B.; Monneret, E.; Toia, J.-L.
2006-04-01
Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high-capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC will be detailed. The principles of control for the CCC in series will be detailed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Toshio; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
2002-12-01
The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the construction of a practical liquid-hydrogen moderator system of the Mega-Watt scale target system. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, Kurt M; Jahnberg, S; Haga, I; Hansson, P T; Mathisen, R P
1964-09-15
A theoretical model for predicting the threshold of instability for two phase flow in a natural circulation loop is presented. The model calculates the flow transient caused by a step disturbance of the heat input, and is based upon the conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy in one dimensional form. Empirical correlations are used in the model for estimating the void fractions and the two-phase flow pressure drops. The equations are solved numerically in a finite difference approximation coded for a digital computer. An experimental study of the hydrodynamic instability and dynamic burnout in two-phase flow has been performed in a natural circulation loop in the pressure range from 10 to 70 atg. The test sections were round ducts of 20, 30 and 36 mm inner diameter and 4890 mm heated length. The experimental results showed that within the ranges tested, the stability of the flow increases with increasing pressure and increasing throttling before the test section, but decreases with increasing Inlet subcooling and increasing throttling after the test section. Comparing the natural circulation burnout steam qualities with corresponding forced circulation data shoved that the former data were low by a factor up to 2.5. However, by applying inlet throttling of the flow the burnout values approached and finally coincided with the forced circulation data. The present experimental results as well as data available from other sources have been compared with the stability thresholds obtained with the theoretical model. The comparisons included circular, annular and rod cluster geometries, and the agreement between the experimental and theoretical stability limits was good. Finally the application of the experimental and theoretical results on the assessment of boiling heavy water reactor design is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, Kurt M.; Jahnberg, S.; Haga, I.; Hansson, P.T.; Mathisen, R.P.
1964-09-01
A theoretical model for predicting the threshold of instability for two phase flow in a natural circulation loop is presented. The model calculates the flow transient caused by a step disturbance of the heat input, and is based upon the conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy in one dimensional form. Empirical correlations are used in the model for estimating the void fractions and the two-phase flow pressure drops. The equations are solved numerically in a finite difference approximation coded for a digital computer. An experimental study of the hydrodynamic instability and dynamic burnout in two-phase flow has been performed in a natural circulation loop in the pressure range from 10 to 70 atg. The test sections were round ducts of 20, 30 and 36 mm inner diameter and 4890 mm heated length. The experimental results showed that within the ranges tested, the stability of the flow increases with increasing pressure and increasing throttling before the test section, but decreases with increasing Inlet subcooling and increasing throttling after the test section. Comparing the natural circulation burnout steam qualities with corresponding forced circulation data shoved that the former data were low by a factor up to 2.5. However, by applying inlet throttling of the flow the burnout values approached and finally coincided with the forced circulation data. The present experimental results as well as data available from other sources have been compared with the stability thresholds obtained with the theoretical model. The comparisons included circular, annular and rod cluster geometries, and the agreement between the experimental and theoretical stability limits was good. Finally the application of the experimental and theoretical results on the assessment of boiling heavy water reactor design is discussed
The chirally rotated Schrödinger functional: theoretical expectations and perturbative tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brida, Mattia Dalla; Sint, Stefan; Vilaseca, Pol
2016-01-01
The chirally rotated Schrödinger functional (χSF) with massless Wilson-type fermions provides an alternative lattice regularization of the Schrödinger functional (SF), with different lattice symmetries and a common continuum limit expected from universality. The explicit breaking of flavour and parity symmetries needs to be repaired by tuning the bare fermion mass and the coefficient of a dimension 3 boundary counterterm. Once this is achieved one expects the mechanism of automatic O(a) improvement to be operational in the χSF, in contrast to the standard formulation of the SF. This is expected to significantly improve the attainable precision for step-scaling functions of some composite operators. Furthermore, the χSF offers new strategies to determine finite renormalization constants which are traditionally obtained from chiral Ward identities. In this paper we consider a complete set of fermion bilinear operators, define corresponding correlation functions and explain the relation to their standard SF counterparts. We discuss renormalization and O(a) improvement and then use this set-up to formulate the theoretical expectations which follow from universality. Expanding the correlation functions to one-loop order of perturbation theory we then perform a number of non-trivial checks. In the process we obtain the action counterterm coefficients to one-loop order and reproduce some known perturbative results for renormalization constants of fermion bilinears. By confirming the theoretical expectations, this perturbative study lends further support to the soundness of the χSF framework and prepares the ground for non-perturbative applications.
Recent results of experiments at SHIP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofmann, S.
1997-10-01
The new elements 110, 111 and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. The decay data were compared with the predictions of theoretical models. Good agreement was obtained for the nuclei up to element Z=112. Theory predicts deformed nuclei with minimum (negative) shell-correction energy at Z=108 and N=162. Candidates for an experimental investigation of spherical superheavy nuclei (SHE) are selected on the basis of the predictions of the nuclear models and extrapolation of experimental results. The production cross-sections up to element Z=112 were measured, partly accurate excitation functions were obtained. The data allow to fix a narrow energy window for production of SHE by ln-emission channels. Possibilities to broaden the energy window by radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets are discussed. (orig.)
Control Theoretic Modeling and Generated Flow Patterns of a Fish-Tail Robot
Massey, Brian; Morgansen, Kristi; Dabiri, Dana
2003-11-01
Many real-world engineering problems involve understanding and manipulating fluid flows. One of the challenges to further progress in the area of active flow control is the lack of appropriate models that are amenable to control-theoretic studies and algorithm design and also incorporate reasonably realistic fluid dynamic effects. We focus here on modeling and model-verification of bio-inspired actuators (fish-fin type structures) used to control fluid dynamic artifacts that will affect speed, agility, and stealth of Underwater Autonomous Vehicles (UAVs). Vehicles using fish-tail type systems are more maneuverable, can turn in much shorter and more constrained spaces, have lower drag, are quieter and potentially more efficient than those using propellers. We will present control-theoretic models for a simple prototype coupled fluid and mechanical actuator where fluid effects are crudely modeled by assuming only lift, drag, and added mass, while neglecting boundary effects. These models will be tested with different control input parameters on an experimental fish-tail robot with the resulting flow captured with DPIV. Relations between the model, the control function choices, the obtained thrust and drag, and the corresponding flow patterns will be presented and discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oliver Laeyendecker
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing.We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later. Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent.During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (% when women were pregnant (n = 20 results compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum. In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test.These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.
Moral, Mónica; García, Gregorio; Peñas, Antonio; Garzón, Andrés; Granadino-Roldán, José M.; Melguizo, Manuel; Fernández-Gómez, Manuel
2012-10-01
This work presents a theoretical and spectroscopic study on the electronic and structural properties of the diphenyl-s-tetrazine molecule (Ph2Tz) and some oligomeric derivatives. Ph2Tz was synthesized through a variation of Pinner-type reaction which uses N-acetylcysteine as catalyst. Insight into the structure and electronic properties of the title compound was obtained through IR, Raman, UV-Vis spectra in different solvents, and theoretical calculations. Theoretical studies have been extended to different n-mers derivatives up to an ideal molecular wire through the oligomeric approximation, predicting this way electronic properties such as LUMO energy levels, electron affinity and reorganization energy in order to assess their possible applications in molecular electronics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Hramov, Alexander E.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Kurovskaya, Maria K.; Pisarchik, Alexander N.
2016-01-01
We propose a theoretical approach associated with an experimental technique to quantitatively characterize cognitive brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. Based on the developed theoretical background and the obtained experimental data, we introduce the concept of effective noise intensity characterizing cognitive brain activity and propose the experimental technique for its measurement. The developed theory, using the methods of statistical physics, provides a solid experimentally approved basis for further understanding of brain functionality. The rather simple way to measure the proposed quantitative characteristic of the brain activity related to the interpretation of ambiguous images will hopefully become a powerful tool for physicists, physiologists and medics. Our theoretical and experimental findings are in excellent agreement with each other.
Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.
2012-12-01
Crystalline complexes between ethylenediammonium dication and terephthalate, chloroacetate, phosphite, selenite and sulfamate anions were obtained by slow evaporation from water solution method. Room temperature powder infrared and Raman measurements were carried out. For ethylenediammonium terephthalate theoretical calculations of structure were performed by two ways: ab-initio HF and semiempirical PM3. In this case the PM3 method gave more accurate structure (closer to X-ray results). The additional PM3 calculations of vibrational spectra were performed. On the basis theoretical approach and earlier vibrational studies of similar compounds the vibrational assignments for observed bands have been proposed. All compounds were checked for second harmonic generation (SHG).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pop-Jordanov, J.
1962-10-01
This report includes the analysis of plutonium isotopes from U 238 depletion chain. Two theoretical approaches for solving the depletion of fuel are shown. One results in the system of differential equations that can be solved only by using electronic calculators and the second, Machinari-Goto method enables obtaining analytical equations for approximative values of particular nuclei. In addition, differential equations are given for different approximation levels in calculating Pu 239 , as well as relations between the released energy and irradiation [sr
Modeling opinion dynamics: Theoretical analysis and continuous approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinasco, Juan Pablo; Semeshenko, Viktoriya; Balenzuela, Pablo
2017-01-01
Highlights: • We study a simple model of persuasion dynamics with long range pairwise interactions. • The continuous limit of the master equation is a nonlinear, nonlocal, first order partial differential equation. • We compute the analytical solutions to this equation, and compare them with the simulations of the dynamics. - Abstract: Frequently we revise our first opinions after talking over with other individuals because we get convinced. Argumentation is a verbal and social process aimed at convincing. It includes conversation and persuasion and the agreement is reached because the new arguments are incorporated. Given the wide range of opinion formation mathematical approaches, there are however no models of opinion dynamics with nonlocal pair interactions analytically solvable. In this paper we present a novel analytical framework developed to solve the master equations with non-local kernels. For this we used a simple model of opinion formation where individuals tend to get more similar after each interactions, no matter their opinion differences, giving rise to nonlinear differential master equation with non-local terms. Simulation results show an excellent agreement with results obtained by the theoretical estimation.
Liu, Yang; Li, Shu-qing; Feng, Zhong-ying; Liu, Xiao-fei; Gao, Jin-yue
2016-12-01
To obtain the weak signal light detection from the high background noise, we present a theoretical study on the ultra-narrow bandwidth tunable atomic filter with electromagnetically induced transparency. In a three-level Λ -type atomic system in the rubidium D1 line, the bandwidth of the EIT atomic filter is narrowed to ~6.5 \\text{MHz} . And the single peak transmission of the filter can be up to 86% . Moreover, the transmission wavelength can be tuned by changing the coupling light frequency. This theoretical scheme can also be applied to other alkali atomic systems.
Comparisons Between Experimental and Semi-theoretical Cutting Forces of CCS Disc Cutters
Xia, Yimin; Guo, Ben; Tan, Qing; Zhang, Xuhui; Lan, Hao; Ji, Zhiyong
2018-05-01
This paper focuses on comparisons between the experimental and semi-theoretical forces of CCS disc cutters acting on different rocks. The experimental forces obtained from LCM tests were used to evaluate the prediction accuracy of a semi-theoretical CSM model. The results show that the CSM model reliably predicts the normal forces acting on red sandstone and granite, but underestimates the normal forces acting on marble. Some additional LCM test data from the literature were collected to further explore the ability of the CSM model to predict the normal forces acting on rocks of different strengths. The CSM model underestimates the normal forces acting on soft rocks, semi-hard rocks and hard rocks by approximately 38, 38 and 10%, respectively, but very accurately predicts those acting on very hard and extremely hard rocks. A calibration factor is introduced to modify the normal forces estimated by the CSM model. The overall trend of the calibration factor is characterized by an exponential decrease with increasing rock uniaxial compressive strength. The mean fitting ratios between the normal forces estimated by the modified CSM model and the experimental normal forces acting on soft rocks, semi-hard rocks and hard rocks are 1.076, 0.879 and 1.013, respectively. The results indicate that the prediction accuracy and the reliability of the CSM model have been improved.
Boltalin, A I; Korenev, Yu M; Sipachev, V A
2007-07-19
Molecular constants of MPbF3 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) were calculated theoretically at the MP2(full) and B3LYP levels with the SDD (Pb, K, Rb, and Cs) and cc-aug-pVQZ (F, Li, and Na) basis sets to determine the thermochemical characteristics of the substances. Satisfactory agreement with experiment was obtained, including the unexpected nonmonotonic dependence of substance dissociation energies on the alkali metal atomic number. The bond lengths of the theoretical CsPbF3 model were substantially elongated compared with experimental estimates, likely because of errors in both theoretical calculations and electron diffraction data processing.
Theoretical Analysis on Mechanical Deformation of Membrane-Based Photomask Blanks
Marumoto, Kenji; Aya, Sunao; Yabe, Hedeki; Okada, Tatsunori; Sumitani, Hiroaki
2012-04-01
Membrane-based photomask is used in proximity X-ray lithography including that in LIGA (Lithographie, Galvanoformung und Abformung) process, and near-field photolithography. In this article, out-of-plane deformation (OPD) and in-plane displacement (IPD) of membrane-based photomask blanks are theoretically analyzed to obtain the mask blanks with flat front surface and low stress absorber film. First, we derived the equations of OPD and IPD for the processing steps of membrane-based photomask such as film deposition, back-etching and bonding, using a theory of symmetrical bending of circular plates with a coaxial circular hole and that of deformation of cylinder under hydrostatic pressure. The validity of the equations was proved by comparing the calculation results with experimental ones. Using these equations, we investigated the relation between the geometry of the mask blanks and the distortions generally, and gave the criterion to attain the flat front surface. Moreover, the absorber stress-bias required to obtain zero-stress on finished mask blanks was also calculated and it has been found that only little stress-bias was required for adequate hole size of support plate.
Experimental and theoretical studies of manganite and magnetite compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srinitiwarawong, Chatchai
2002-01-01
In the recent years interest in the transition oxide compounds has renewed among researchers in the field of condensed matter physics. This thesis presents the studies of the two families of the transition oxides, the manganite and magnetite compounds. Manganite has regained the interest since the discovery of the large magnetoresistance around its Curie temperature in 1990s. Magnetite on the other hand is the oldest magnetic material known to man however some of its physical properties are still controversial. The experimental works address some basic properties of these compounds when fabricated in the form of thin films. These include the resistivity measurements and magnetic measurements as well as the Hall effect. The various models of transport mechanism have been compared. The magnetic field and the temperature dependence of magnetoresistance have also been studied. Simple devices such as an artificial grain boundary and bilayers thin film have been investigated. The second part of this thesis concentrates on the theoretical aspects of the fundamental physics behind these two compounds. The problem of electrons tunnelling between the magnetite electrodes has been addressed taking into account the surface effect with distortion. The last chapter presents a theoretical study of the spinless-Hubbard model which is the simplest approximation of the conduction electrons in magnetite and manganite. The results are obtained from the Hartree-Fock and the Hubbard-I approximations as well as the exact diagonalisation method. (author)
THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF SPINE BEAM OF FREIGHT CARS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. O. Neduzha
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the strength properties of rolling stock; search for design tools, modeling, selection, justification of the service life extension of freight cars and their elements. Methodology. The article is based on the finite element method (FEM. It makes possible to completely automate the calculation of mechanical systems, although, as a rule, it requires a much larger number of computational operations than the classical methods of mechanics. The modern level of development of computer technology opens wide opportunities for the introduction of FEM into engineering practice. FEM is implemented in many well-known and widely distributed software products that provide strength analysis of models of machines, mechanisms, structures, including the rolling stock of railways. Findings. The article presents an analysis of the theoretical and experimental studies of the strength properties of rolling stock elements on the example of the spine beam of freight cars; calculations were performed using a modern application program package. The presented example of use of the offered approach has shown its operation capacity and efficiency, as well as correctness of the research direction. The offered approach can be used when solving similar optimization tasks in research and developmental practice of transport mechanical engineering. Originality. The authors proposed me-thod of determining the reliability indicators and solving scientific and applied problem of calculating the elements of freight cars, taking into account the operation features and the loading mode impact. This allows determining their durability at the design stage. There were developed and investigated the models of the spine beam of a freight car, on the basis of which the dependences characterizing the stress-strain state of its elements were obtained. Scientifically substantiated results of
Quality Assessment of solid waste used for obtaining biogas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamayo Cuellar, Ernesto Antonio; Menendez Perez, Manuel German
2011-01-01
The solid residuals are in our days an important factor in the processes of recycling of materials, composting and obtaining of biogas, however, sometimes doesn't keep in mind the quality of these for their productive acting. Therefore the present work has as objective, in the peculiar case of the biogas production, to propose a method to evaluate the quality of the solid residuals used in the biogas process starting from the biodegradable organic fraction contained in these. For the investigative development of the work theoretical methods were used as the hypothetical-deductive method, the systemic one, the structural-functional one and empiric methods as the scientific observation and the mensuration. The results of their application, although discreet still, have been evidenced in the evaluation of the quality of the solid residuals in the plant of recycling -composting of the City of Holguin in the compost production. The main conclusion to which you can arrive with the carried out investigation is that the evaluation of the quality of the solid residuals is important to make studies of feasibility in the design and implementation of new projects of recycling units, composting and biogas. (author)
Quantum noise in the mirror–field system: A field theoretic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Wu, Tai-Hung; Lee, Da-Shin; King, Sun-Kun; Wu, Chun-Hsien
2013-01-01
We revisit the quantum noise problem in the mirror–field system by a field-theoretic approach. Here a perfectly reflecting mirror is illuminated by a single-mode coherent state of the massless scalar field. The associated radiation pressure is described by a surface integral of the stress-tensor of the field. The read-out field is measured by a monopole detector, from which the effective distance between the detector and mirror can be obtained. In the slow-motion limit of the mirror, this field-theoretic approach allows to identify various sources of quantum noise that all in all leads to uncertainty of the read-out measurement. In addition to well-known sources from shot noise and radiation pressure fluctuations, a new source of noise is found from field fluctuations modified by the mirror’s displacement. Correlation between different sources of noise can be established in the read-out measurement as the consequence of interference between the incident field and the field reflected off the mirror. In the case of negative correlation, we found that the uncertainty can be lowered than the value predicted by the standard quantum limit. Since the particle-number approach is often used in quantum optics, we compared results obtained by both approaches and examine its validity. We also derive a Langevin equation that describes the stochastic dynamics of the mirror. The underlying fluctuation–dissipation relation is briefly mentioned. Finally we discuss the backreaction induced by the radiation pressure. It will alter the mean displacement of the mirror, but we argue this backreaction can be ignored for a slowly moving mirror. - Highlights: ► The quantum noise problem in the mirror–field system is re-visited by a field-theoretic approach. ► Other than the shot noise and radiation pressure noise, we show there are new sources of noise and correlation between them. ► The noise correlations can be used to suppress the overall quantum noise on the mirror.
Quantum noise in the mirror-field system: A field theoretic approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung, E-mail: cosmology@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Tai-Hung [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Da-Shin, E-mail: dslee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); King, Sun-Kun [Institutes of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Chun-Hsien [Department of Physics, Soochow University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)
2013-02-15
We revisit the quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system by a field-theoretic approach. Here a perfectly reflecting mirror is illuminated by a single-mode coherent state of the massless scalar field. The associated radiation pressure is described by a surface integral of the stress-tensor of the field. The read-out field is measured by a monopole detector, from which the effective distance between the detector and mirror can be obtained. In the slow-motion limit of the mirror, this field-theoretic approach allows to identify various sources of quantum noise that all in all leads to uncertainty of the read-out measurement. In addition to well-known sources from shot noise and radiation pressure fluctuations, a new source of noise is found from field fluctuations modified by the mirror's displacement. Correlation between different sources of noise can be established in the read-out measurement as the consequence of interference between the incident field and the field reflected off the mirror. In the case of negative correlation, we found that the uncertainty can be lowered than the value predicted by the standard quantum limit. Since the particle-number approach is often used in quantum optics, we compared results obtained by both approaches and examine its validity. We also derive a Langevin equation that describes the stochastic dynamics of the mirror. The underlying fluctuation-dissipation relation is briefly mentioned. Finally we discuss the backreaction induced by the radiation pressure. It will alter the mean displacement of the mirror, but we argue this backreaction can be ignored for a slowly moving mirror. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system is re-visited by a field-theoretic approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other than the shot noise and radiation pressure noise, we show there are new sources of noise and correlation between them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The noise
Paternity tests in Mexico: Results obtained in 3005 cases.
García-Aceves, M E; Romero Rentería, O; Díaz-Navarro, X X; Rangel-Villalobos, H
2018-04-01
National and international reports regarding the paternity testing activity scarcely include information from Mexico and other Latin American countries. Therefore, we report different results from the analysis of 3005 paternity cases analyzed during a period of five years in a Mexican paternity testing laboratory. Motherless tests were the most frequent (77.27%), followed by trio cases (20.70%); the remaining 2.04% included different cases of kinship reconstruction. The paternity exclusion rate was 29.58%, higher but into the range reported by the American Association of Blood Banks (average 24.12%). We detected 65 mutations, most of them involving one-step (93.8% and the remaining were two-step mutations (6.2%) thus, we were able to estimate the paternal mutation rate for 17 different STR loci: 0.0018 (95% CI 0.0005-0.0047). Five triallelic patterns and 12 suspected null alleles were detected during this period; however, re-amplification of these samples with a different Human Identification (HID) kit confirmed the homozygous genotypes, which suggests that most of these exclusions actually are one-step mutations. HID kits with ≥20 STRs detected more exclusions, diminishing the rate of inconclusive results with isolated exclusions (Powerplex 21 kit (20 STRs) and Powerplex Fusion kit (22 STRs) offered similar PI (p = 0.379) and average number of exclusions (PE) (p = 0.339) when a daughter was involved in motherless tests. In brief, besides to report forensic parameters from paternity tests in Mexico, results describe improvements to solve motherless paternity tests using HID kits with ≥20 STRs instead of one including 15 STRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Data analysis of a polycrystalline nickel sample obtained with neutron diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parente, C.B.R.; Mazzochi, V.L.; Araujo Kaschny, J.R. de; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Campos, W.M.S.
1990-01-01
A simple analysis of the nickel structure was made. Neutron diffraction data were used, obtained with polycrystalline nickel placed in a cylindrical sample-holder with dimensions of 1,5cm of diameter and 5cm of height. The theoretical intensities were calculated of 3 forms: 1. without considering the temperature and obsorption effects, 2. considering only the temperature effect and 3. considering both the temperature and absorption effects. The disagreement factors found in this 3 cases were, respectively, R 1 = 13.4%, R 2 = 7,7% e R 3 = 7,5%. (L.C.)
Sintering of B4C powder obtained by a modified carbo-thermal reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocha, R.M.; Kazumi, M.H.; Goncalves, D.P.; Melo, F.C.L.
2005-01-01
Boron carbide is one of the hardest materials and a highly refractory material that is of great interest for structural, electronic and nuclear applications. B 4 C is commercially manufactured by the carbo-thermal reduction of a mixture of boron oxide (B 2 O 3 ) in an batch electric arc furnace process. However the carbo-thermal reaction on the stoichiometric starting composition results an excess carbon residue because of the boron loss in the form of B 2 O 2 . Thus, a modified carbo-thermal reaction is applied with an excess B 2 O 3 to compensate the loss and to obtain stoichiometric powders. The aim of this work is to study the sinterability of this powder with the lower carbon residue acting as sintering additive. Pressureless sintering in the temperatures of 1900 deg. C/30 min and 2100 deg. C/30 min in argon atmosphere were applied. The synthesized powders were analysed by XRD and SEM. Density of 94% of theoretical density was achieved for sample prepared with the powder obtained with 50% B 2 O 3 excess synthesized at 1700 deg. C/15 min. (authors)
Theoretical model of two-phase drift flow on natural circulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xingtuan; Jiang Shengyao; Zhang Youjie
2002-01-01
Some expressions, such as sub-cooled boiling in the heating section, condensation near the riser inlet, flashing in the riser, and pressure balance in the steam-space, have been theoretically deduced from the physical model of 5 MW heating reactor test loop. The thermodynamics un-equilibrium etc have been considered too. A entire drift model with four equations has been formed, which can be applied to natural circulation system with low pressure and low steam quality. By means of introducing the concept of condensation layer, condensing of bubbles in the sub-cooled liquid has been formulated for the first time. The restrictive equations of the steam space pressure and liquid level have been offered. The equations can be solved by means of integral method, then by using Rung-Kutta-Verner method the final results is obtained
A semi-analytical computation of the theoretical uncertainties of the solar neutrino flux
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jorgensen, Andreas C. S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen
2017-01-01
We present a comparison between Monte Carlo simulations and a semi-analytical approach that reproduces the theoretical probability distribution functions of the solar neutrino fluxes, stemming from the pp, pep, hep, Be-7, B-8, N-13, O-15 and F-17 source reactions. We obtain good agreement between...
Theoretical Approaches to Nuclear Proliferation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantin S. Tarasov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This article analyses discussions between representatives of three schools in the theory of international relations - realism, liberalism and constructivism - on the driving factors of nuclear proliferation. The paper examines major theoretical approaches, outlined in the studies of Russian and foreign scientists, to the causes of nuclear weapons development, while unveiling their advantages and limitations. Much of the article has been devoted to alternative approaches, particularly, the role of mathematical modeling in assessing proliferation risks. The analysis also reveals a variety of different approaches to nuclear weapons acquisition, as well as the absence of a comprehensive proliferation theory. Based on the research results the study uncovers major factors both favoring and impeding nuclear proliferation. The author shows that the lack of consensus between realists, liberals and constructivists on the nature of proliferation led a number of scientists to an attempt to explain nuclear rationale by drawing from the insights of more than one school in the theory of IR. Detailed study of the proliferation puzzle contributes to a greater understating of contemporary international realities, helps to identify mechanisms that are most likely to deter states from obtaining nuclear weapons and is of the outmost importance in predicting short- and long-term security environment. Furthermore, analysis of the existing scientific literature on nuclear proliferation helps to determine future research agenda of the subject at hand.
de Barros, F P J; Fiori, A; Boso, F; Bellin, A
2015-01-01
Spatial heterogeneity of the hydraulic properties of geological porous formations leads to erratically shaped solute clouds, thus increasing the edge area of the solute body and augmenting the dilution rate. In this study, we provide a theoretical framework to quantify dilution of a non-reactive solute within a steady state flow as affected by the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity. Embracing the Lagrangian concentration framework, we obtain explicit semi-analytical expressions for the dilution index as a function of the structural parameters of the random hydraulic conductivity field, under the assumptions of uniform-in-the-average flow, small injection source and weak-to-mild heterogeneity. Results show how the dilution enhancement of the solute cloud is strongly dependent on both the statistical anisotropy ratio and the heterogeneity level of the porous medium. The explicit semi-analytical solution also captures the temporal evolution of the dilution rate; for the early- and late-time limits, the proposed solution recovers previous results from the literature, while at intermediate times it reflects the increasing interplay between large-scale advection and local-scale dispersion. The performance of the theoretical framework is verified with high resolution numerical results and successfully tested against the Cape Cod field data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Experimental, computational and theoretical studies of δ′ phase coarsening in Al–Li alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pletcher, B.A.; Wang, K.G.; Glicksman, M.E.
2012-01-01
Experimental characterization of microstructure evolution in three binary Al–Li alloys provides critical tests of both diffusion screening theory and multiparticle diffusion simulations, which predict late-stage phase-coarsening kinetics. Particle size distributions, growth kinetics and maximum particle sizes obtained using quantitative, centered dark-field transmission electron microscopy are compared quantitatively with theoretical and computational predictions. We also demonstrate the dependence on δ′ precipitate volume fraction of the rate constant for coarsening and the microstructure’s maximum particle size, both of which remained undetermined for this alloy system for nearly a half century. Our experiments show quantitatively that the diffusion-screening theoretical description of phase coarsening yields reasonable kinetic predictions, and that useful simulations of microstructure evolution are obtained via multiparticle diffusion. The tested theory and simulation method will provide useful tools for future design of two-phase alloys for elevated temperature applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kripal, Ram, E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Yadav, Awadhesh Kumar, E-mail: aky.physics@gmail.com
2015-06-15
Zero field splitting parameters (ZFSPs) D and E of Cr{sup 3+} ion doped ammonium oxalate monohydrate (AOM) are calculated with formula using the superposition model. The theoretically calculated ZFSPs for Cr{sup 3+} in AOM crystal are compared with the experimental value obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Theoretical ZFSPs are in good agreement with the experimental ones. The energy band positions of optical absorption spectra of Cr{sup 3+} in AOM crystal calculated with CFA package are in good match with the experimental values.
Cong, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Qingpu; Liu, Zhaojun; Chen, Xiaohan; Fan, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Huaijin; Tao, Xutang; Li, Shutao
2010-06-07
A diode-side-pumped actively Q-switched intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG/BaWO(4)/KTP Raman laser is studied experimentally and theoretically. Rate equations are used to analyze the Q-switched yellow laser by considering the transversal distributions of the intracavity photon density and the inversion population density. An 8.3 W 590 nm laser is obtained with a 125.8 W 808 nm pump power and a 15 kHz pulse repetition frequency. The corresponding optical conversion efficiency from diode laser to yellow laser is 6.57%, much higher than that of the former reported side-pumped yellow laser. The output powers with respect to the incident pump power are in agreement with the theoretical results on the whole.
Theoretical analysis of rolled joints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, R.K.
1975-01-01
A procedure for theoretically analysing the case of an externally restrained sandwich joint formed by a hypothetical uniform hydrostatic expansion process is outlined. Reference is made to a computer program based on this theory. Results illustrating the effect of major joint variables on residual contact pressure are presented and analysed. The applicability and limitations of this theory are discussed. (author)
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE FINANCIAL REPORTING MODEL: THEORETICAL STUDIES IN REVIEW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the manner in which the financial reporting model evolved towards fair value accounting. After a brief introduction into the context of financial reporting at international level, the analysis focuses on the accounting model of fair value. This is done by synthesizing main studies in accounting research literature that analyze fair value accounting through a theoretical approach. The analysis being developed relies on literature review methodology. The main purpose of the developed analysis is to synthesize main pros and cons as being documented through accounting research literature. Our findings underline both the advantages and shortcomings of fair value accounting and of the recent mixed attribute in nowadays financial reporting practices. The concluding remarks synthesize the obtained results and possible future developments of our analysis.
Muon-neutrino-induced charged-current cross section without pions: Theoretical analysis
Mosel, U.; Gallmeister, K.
2018-04-01
We calculate the charged-current cross sections obtained at the T2K near detector for νμ-induced events without pions in the final state. The method used is quantum-kinetic transport theory. Results are shown first, as a benchmark, for electron-inclusive cross sections on 12C and 16O to be followed with a detailed comparison with the data measured by the T2K Collaboration on C8H8 and H2O targets. The contribution of 2p2h processes is found to be relevant mostly for backward angles; their theoretical uncertainties are within the experimental uncertainties. Particular emphasis is then put on a discussion of events in which pions are first created but then reabsorbed. Their contribution is found to be essential at forward angles.
Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.
1993-01-01
In this paper, theoretical and numerical results of the polarimetric scattering and emission from random rough surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum are presented for the remote sensing of ocean and soil surfaces. The polarimetric scattered field for rough dielectric surfaces is derived to the second order by the small perturbation method (SPM). It is found that the second-order scattered field is coherent in nature, and its coefficients for different polarizations present the lowest-order corrections to the Fresnel reflection coefficients of the surfaces. In addition, the cross-polarized (HV and VH) components of the coherent fields are reciprocal and not zero for surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum when the azimuth angle of the incident direction is not aligned with the symmetry directions of surfaces. In order to verify the energy conservation condition of the theoretical results, which is important if the theory is to be applied to the passive polarimetry of rough surfaces, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to numerically calculate the polarimetric reflectivities of one-dimensional random rough surfaces which are generated with a prescribed power-law spectrum in the spectral domain and transformed to the spatial domain by the FFT. The surfaces simulated by this approach are periodic with the period corresponding to the low-wavenumber cutoff. To calculate the scattering from periodic dielectric surfaces, the authors present a new numerical technique which applies the Floquet theorem to reduce the problem to one period and does not require the evaluation of one-dimensional periodic Green's function used in the conventional method of moment formulation. Once the scattering coefficients are obtained, the polarimetric Stokes vectors for the emission from the random surfaces are then calculated according to the Kirchhoff's law and are illustrated as functions of relative azimuth observation and row directions. The second-order SPM is also
Theoretical prediction of thermal conductivity for thermal protection systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gori, F.; Corasaniti, S.; Worek, W.M.; Minkowycz, W.J.
2012-01-01
The present work is aimed to evaluate the effective thermal conductivity of an ablative composite material in the state of virgin material and in three paths of degradation. The composite material is undergoing ablation with formation of void pores or char and void pores. The one dimensional effective thermal conductivity is evaluated theoretically by the solution of heat conduction under two assumptions, i.e. parallel isotherms and parallel heat fluxes. The paper presents the theoretical model applied to an elementary cubic cell of the composite material which is made of two crossed fibres and a matrix. A numerical simulation is carried out to compare the numerical results with the theoretical ones for different values of the filler volume fraction. - Highlights: ► Theoretical models of the thermal conductivity of an ablative composite. ► Composite material is made of two crossed fibres and a matrix. ► Three mechanisms of degradation are investigated. ► One dimensional thermal conductivity is evaluated by the heat conduction equation. ► Numerical simulations to be compared with the theoretical models.
Kytka, M.; Gisslen, L.; Gerlach, A.; Heinemeyer, U.; Kováč, J.; Scholz, R.; Schreiber, F.
2009-06-01
In order to investigate the optical properties of rubrene we study the vibronic progression of the first absorption band (lowest π →π∗ transition). We analyze the dielectric function ɛ2 of rubrene in solution and thin films using the displaced harmonic oscillator model and derive all relevant parameters of the vibronic progression. The findings are supplemented by density functional calculations using B3LYP hybrid functionals. Our theoretical results for the molecule in two different conformations, i.e., with a twisted or planar tetracene backbone, are in very good agreement with the experimental data obtained for rubrene in solution and thin films. Moreover, a simulation based on the monomer spectrum and the calculated transition energies of the two conformations indicates that the thin film spectrum of rubrene is dominated by the twisted isomer.
A Theoretical Assessment of Regional Development Effects on the Demand for General Education
Iwahashi, Roki
2007-01-01
This study addresses a prospective aspect of general education: through general education, people obtain information about returns to their future specific education, thereby enabling them to choose fields in which they excel. According to that property of education, this paper presents a theoretical framework as a basis for understanding effects…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Class, G.; Hain, K.; Meyder, R.
1978-01-01
The fuel behavior in the blow-down phase of a LOCA is of importance for fuel rods with high internal pressure and high rod power, because of the effects on clad failure of the small cladding deformations occurring. The operating results of the COSIMA facility show that, on the basis of the new developments for measuring technique and fuel rod simulators performed, reactor relevant blow-down performances can be conducted in a controlled and reproduceable manner. The mechanical and thermal-hydraulic states occurring in the test bed may be subject to computational checking. This permits on one hand to improve the computing models and on the other yields a confirmation of the high state of development of the available computer codes. Therefore it appears that, with the results from COSIMA and the associated theoretical work in the field of the blow-down process, difficult to treat experimentally, an essential contribution to verifying the models for accident calculations is given. The work scheduled for the next about 1 1/2 years will serve to further support the rather preliminary results and to extend the range of then application. (orig.) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogdanović-Jovanović Jasmina B.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In the increasing need for energy saving worldwide, the designing process of turbomachinery, as an essential part of thermal and hydroenergy systems, goes in the direction of enlarging efficiency. Therefore, the optimization of turbomachinery designing strongly affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. In the designing process of turbomachinery blade profiling, the model of axisymmetric fluid flows is commonly used in technical practice, even though this model suits only the profile cascades with infinite number of infinitely thin blades. The actual flow in turbomachinery profile cascades is not axisymmetric, and it can be fictively derived into the axisymmetric flow by averaging flow parameters in the blade passages according to the circular coordinate. Using numerical simulations of flow in turbomachinery runners, its operating parameters can be preliminarily determined. Furthermore, using the numerically obtained flow parameters in the blade passages, averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces in blade profile cascades can also be determined. The method of determination of averaged flow parameters and averaged meridian streamlines is presented in this paper, using the integral continuity equation for averaged flow parameters. With thus obtained results, every designer can be able to compare the obtained averaged flow surfaces with axisymmetric flow surfaces, as well as the specific work of elementary stages, which are used in the procedure of blade designing. Numerical simulations of flow in an exemplary axial flow pump, used as a part of the thermal power plant cooling system, were performed using Ansys CFX. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33040: Revitalization of existing and designing new micro and mini hydropower plants (from 100 kW to 1000 kW in the territory of South and Southeast Serbia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leth, Peter Mygind; Struckmann, Henrik; Lauritsen, Jens
2013-01-01
The present study investigated the interobserver variation between a radiologist and a forensic pathologist in 994 injury diagnoses obtained by postmortem computed tomography (CT) of 67 traffic fatality victims, and the results were compared with diagnoses obtained by autopsy. The injuries were...... system, but the pathologist diagnosed more organ injuries. We recommend the use of a radiologist as a consultant for the evaluation of postmortem CT images. Training in radiology should be included in forensic medicine postgraduate training. CT was superior to autopsy in detecting abnormal air...
Theoretical modeling and experimental study on fatigue initiation life of 16MnR notched components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xiaogui; Gao Zengliang; Qiu Baoxiang; Jiang Yanrao
2010-01-01
In order to investigate the effects of notch geometry and loading conditions on the fatigue initiation life and fatigue fracture life of 16MnR material, fatigue experiments were conducted for both smooth rod specimens and notched rod specimens. The detailed elastic-plastic stress and strain responses were computed by the finite element software (ABAQUS) incorporating a robust cyclic plasticity model via a user subroutine UMAT. The obtained stresses and strains were applied to the multiaxial fatigue damage criterion to compute the fatigue damage induced by a loading cycle on the critical material plane. The fatigue initiation life was then obtained by the proposed theoretical model. The well agreement between the predicted results and the experiment data indicated that the fatigue initiation of notched components in the multiaxial stress state related to all the nonzero stress and strain quantities. (authors)
Resistance and Renewal in Theoretical Psychology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
psychology, resistance and renewal, form the overall theme for a selection of theoretical papers that is framed — in this iteration of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology's (ISTP) proceedings — by reflections on the 30 year history of the ISTP as well as by considerations of the future....... The diversity and creativity of the work undertaken within theoretical psychology is further exemplified by papers on the history of the ISTP and theoretical psychology, a new paradigm for functional disorders, experimental introspection and techniques of self, the performativity of psychological science......Theoretical psychologists continue to challenge psychology, related disciplines and the work of other theoretical psychologists through a wide variety of activities that include conceptual clarification and creative theorizing. In many cases, these activities are experienced by the relevant...
Theoretical aspects of an electrostatic aerosol filter for civilian turbofan engines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeriu DRAGAN
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of aerosol filtration in turbofan engines. The current problem of very fine aerosol admission is the impossibility for mechanical filtration; another aspect of the problem is the high mass flow of air to be filtered. Non-attended, the aerosol admission can -and usually does- lead to clogging of turbine cooling passages and can damage the engine completely. The approach is theoretical and relies on the principles of electrostatic dust collectors known in other industries. An estimative equation is deduced in order to quantify the electrical charge required to obtain the desired filtration. Although the device still needs more theoretical and experimental work, it could one day be used as a means of increasing the safety of airplanes passing trough an aerosol laden mass of air.
A theoretical model of the M87 jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falle, S.A.E.G.; Wilson, M.J.
1985-01-01
This paper describes a theoretical model of the knots in the M87 jet based on the idea that it is a steady fluid jet propagating through a non-uniform atmosphere. It is argued that knots D, E and F can be explained by the jet being underexpanded as it emerges from the central source, while knot A is due to reconfinement of the jet. Very high resolution numerical calculations are used to show that good agreement with the observed positions of the knots can be obtained with reasonable jet parameters and an atmosphere consistent with the X-ray observations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-01-01
After a brief recall of the IRSN's missions, this report describes why and how radioactivity is controlled in France. It presents the national network for environment radioactivity measurements, and indicates the objectives of this radiological survey. It comments the status and levels of the natural and artificial radioactivity in France, discusses the results of the territory general survey (atmosphere, inland, coast, regions), the results of fuel cycle related sites (nuclear sites, old mining sites, front end industries, electricity production plants, back end industries, waste storage sites), the results concerning the nuclear medicine radioactive releases, the results obtained during selective expertises, and discusses the assessment of the exposure of the French population to ionizing radiations. It finally indicates how those data are published
Harmless survey of the theoretical situation in the high temperature superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorkov, L.P.
1989-01-01
The theoretical understanding of the new superconductors progresses slowly despite the large amount of publications. The intention of this paper is to show that partially this is so because a number of key problems remain unresolved experimentally. Meanwhile, some of the recent findings point out in the direction which, if correct, may drastically change theoretical views. Before the authors discuss these new experimental results, a brief overview of the different theoretical approaches is given below
A theoretical model for prediction of deposition efficiency in cold spraying
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Changjiu; Li Wenya; Wang Yuyue; Yang Guanjun; Fukanuma, H.
2005-01-01
The deposition behavior of a spray particle stream with a particle size distribution was theoretically examined for cold spraying in terms of deposition efficiency as a function of particle parameters and spray angle. The theoretical relation was established between the deposition efficiency and spray angle. The experiments were conducted by measuring deposition efficiency at different driving gas conditions and different spray angles using gas-atomized copper powder. It was found that the theoretically estimated results agreed reasonably well with the experimental ones. Based on the theoretical model and experimental results, it was revealed that the distribution of particle velocity resulting from particle size distribution influences significantly the deposition efficiency in cold spraying. It was necessary for the majority of particles to achieve a velocity higher than the critical velocity in order to improve the deposition efficiency. The normal component of particle velocity contributed to the deposition of the particle under the off-nomal spray condition. The deposition efficiency of sprayed particles decreased owing to the decrease of the normal velocity component as spray was performed at off-normal angle
Song, Dean; Sun, Huiqing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Kong, Fanyu; Qiang, Zhimin; Zhang, Aiqian; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui
2018-01-01
As an emerging environmental contaminant, the herbicide quinclorac has attracted much attention in recent years. However, a very fundamental issue, the acid dissociation of quinclorac has not yet to be studied in detail. Herein, the pKa value and the corresponding structures of quinclorac were systematically investigated using combined experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental pKa of quinclorac was determined by the spectrophotometric method to be 2.65 at 25 °C with ionic strength of 0.05 M, and was corrected to be 2.56 at ionic strength of zero. The molecular structures of quinclorac were then located by employing the DFT calculation. The anionic quinclorac was directly located with the carboxylic group perpendicular to the aromatic ring, while neutral quinclorac was found to be the equivalent twin structures. The result was further confirmed by analyzing the UV/Vis and MS-MS2 spectra from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. By employing the QSPR approach, the theoretical pKa of QCR was determined to be 2.50, which is excellent agreement with the experimental result obtained herein. The protonation of QCR at the carboxylic group instead of the quinoline structure was attributed to the weak electronegative property of nitrogen atom induced by the electron-withdrawing groups. It is anticipated that this work could not only help in gaining a deep insight into the acid dissociation of quinclorac but also offering the key information on its reaction and interaction with others.
Acidity and alkalinity in mine drainage: Theoretical considerations
Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta,, Charles A.
2004-01-01
Acidity, net acidity, and net alkalinity are widely used parameters for the characterization of mine drainage, but these terms are not well defined and are often misunderstood. Incorrect interpretation of acidity, alkalinity, and derivative terms can lead to inadequate treatment design or poor regulatory decisions. We briefly explain derivations of theoretical expressions of three types of alkalinities (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidities (mineral, CO2, and total). Theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined “CO2- acidity” is closely related to most standard titration methods used for mine drainage with an endpoint pH of 8.3, but it presents numerous interpretation problems, and it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/massaction approach and employing graphs for visualization, we explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to solution species, including aqueous complexes, commonly found in mine drainage. We define a comprehensive theoretical definition of acidity in mine drainage on the basis of aqueous speciation at the sample pH and the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. This definition indicates the computed acidity in milligrams per liter (mg L-1 ) as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeIII , FeII , Mn, and Al in mg L-1 ): Aciditycomputed = 50. (10(3-pH) + 3.CFeIII/55.8 + 2.CFeII/55.8 + 2.CMn/54.9 + 3.CAl/27.0) underestimates contributions from HSO4 - and H+ , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+. These errors tend to approximately cancel each other. We demonstrate that “net alkalinity” is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. We demonstrate that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a
Theoretical status of baryon magnetic moments
Franklin, Jerrold
1989-05-01
This talk given at the Eighth International Symposium on High-Energy Spin Physics in Minneapolis, Minnesota (September 12-17, 1988), is a short summary of theoretical results for baryon magnetic moments. Results from the static bag model and pion exchange effects are summarized and compared with experimental data. A list of references for various models and properties effecting the baryon magnetic moments is given at the end of the article. (AIP)
Theoretical status of baryon magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franklin, J.
1989-01-01
This talk given at the Eighth International Symposium on High-Energy Spin Physics in Minneapolis, Minnesota (September 12--17, 1988), is a short summary of theoretical results for baryon magnetic moments. Results from the static bag model and pion exchange effects are summarized and compared with experimental data. A list of references for various models and properties effecting the baryon magnetic moments is given at the end of the article
Rex, J H; Hanson, L H; Amantea, M A; Stevens, D A; Bennett, J E
1991-01-01
An improved bioassay for fluconazole was developed. This assay is sensitive in the clinically relevant range (2 to 40 micrograms/ml) and analyzes plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid specimens; bioassay results correlate with results obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioassay and HPLC analyses of spiked plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid samples (run as unknowns) gave good agreement with expected values. Analysis of specimens from patients gave equivalent results by both HPLC and bioassay. HPLC had a lower within-run coefficient of variation (less than 2.5% for HPLC versus less than 11% for bioassay) and a lower between-run coefficient of variation (less than 5% versus less than 12% for bioassay) and was more sensitive (lower limit of detection, 0.1 micrograms/ml [versus 2 micrograms/ml for bioassay]). The bioassay is, however, sufficiently accurate and sensitive for clinical specimens, and its relative simplicity, low sample volume requirement, and low equipment cost should make it the technique of choice for analysis of routine clinical specimens. PMID:1854166
Theoretical spectroscopic study of the conjugate microcystin-LR-europium cryptate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Julio G.; Dutra, Jose Diogo L.; Costa Junior, Nivan B. da; Freire, Ricardo O., E-mail: rfreire@ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Alves Junior, Severino; Sa, Gilberto F. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Fundamental
2013-02-15
In this work, theoretical tools were used to study spectroscopic properties of the conjugate microcystin-LR-europium cryptate. The Sparkle/AM1 model was applied to predict the geometry of the system and the INDO/S-CIS model was used to calculate the excited state energies. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, the intensity parameters were predicted and a theoretical model based on the theory of the 4f-4f transitions was applied to calculate energy transfer and backtransfer rates, radiative and non-radiative decay rates, quantum efficiency and quantum yield. A detailed study of the luminescent properties of the conjugate Microcystin-LR-europium cryptate was carried out. The results show that the theoretical quantum yield of luminescence of 23% is in good agreement with the experimental value published. This fact suggests that this theoretical protocol can be used to design new systems in order to improve their luminescence properties. The results suggest that this luminescent system may be a good conjugate for using in assay ELISA for detection by luminescence of the Microcystin-LR in water. (author)
On precipitation monitoring with theoretical statistical distributions
Cindrić, Ksenija; Juras, Josip; Pasarić, Zoran
2018-04-01
A common practice in meteorological drought monitoring is to transform the observed precipitation amounts to the standardised precipitation index (SPI). Though the gamma distribution is usually employed for this purpose, some other distribution may be used, particularly in regions where zero precipitation amounts are recorded frequently. In this study, two distributions are considered alongside with the gamma distribution: the compound Poisson exponential distribution (CPE) and the square root normal distribution (SRN). They are fitted to monthly precipitation amounts measured at 24 stations in Croatia in the 55-year-long period (1961-2015). At five stations, long-term series (1901-2015) are available and they have been used for a more detailed investigation. The accommodation of the theoretical distributions to empirical ones is tested by comparison of the corresponding empirical and theoretical ratios of the skewness and the coefficient of variation. Furthermore, following the common approach to precipitation monitoring (CLIMAT reports), the comparison of the empirical and theoretical quintiles in the two periods (1961-1990 and 1991-2015) is examined. The results from the present study reveal that it would be more appropriate to implement theoretical distributions in such climate reports, since they provide better evaluation for monitoring purposes than the current empirical distribution. Nevertheless, deciding on an optimal theoretical distribution for different climate regimes and for different time periods is not easy to accomplish. With regard to Croatian stations (covering different climate regimes), the CPE or SRN distribution could also be the right choice in the climatological practice, in addition to the gamma distribution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabrera, Grisel
2012-01-01
In order to predict the degradation status of a soil, a group of variables comprising its physical, chemical and/or biological properties is used. Macrofauna, which includes soil invertebrates higher than 2 mm of diameter, is a biological component that can be used for such purpose. Its taxonomic richness as well as its density, biomass and functional composition change depending on the effect of diverse land uses and managements. This review reaffirms that the macrofauna characteristics and the results obtained, mainly in Cuba, about its variation in ecosystems with different anthropization levels, support the potential use of this fauna as biological indicator of the soil's conservation status. Future studies should consider a lower taxonomic level in the identification of macrofauna, and relate its taxonomic and functional composition to the climate and pedological factors. (author)
TMX tandem-mirror experiments and thermal-barrier theoretical studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonen, T.C.; Baldwin, D.E.; Allen, S.L.
1982-01-01
This paper describes recent analysis of energy confinement in the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX). TMX data also indicates that warm plasma limits the amplitude of the anisotropy driven Alfven ion cyclotron (AIC) mode. Theoretical calculations show strong AIC stabilization with off-normal beam injection as planned in TMX-U and MFTF-B. This paper reports results of theoretical analysis of hot electrons in thermal barriers including electron heating calculations by Monte Carlo and Fokker-Planck codes and analysis of hot electron MHD and microinstability. Initial results from the TMX-U experiment are presented which show the presence of sloshing ions
Yoo-Kong, Sikarin; Liewrian, Watchara
2015-12-01
We report on a theoretical investigation concerning the polaronic effect on the transport properties of a charge carrier in a one-dimensional molecular chain. Our technique is based on the Feynman's path integral approach. Analytical expressions for the frequency-dependent mobility and effective mass of the carrier are obtained as functions of electron-phonon coupling. The result exhibits the crossover from a nearly free particle to a heavily trapped particle. We find that the mobility depends on temperature and decreases exponentially with increasing temperature at low temperature. It exhibits large polaronic-like behaviour in the case of weak electron-phonon coupling. These results agree with the phase transition (A.S. Mishchenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 146401 (2015)) of transport phenomena related to polaron motion in the molecular chain.
Theoretical Proposal for Pragmatic-Rhetorical Analysis of Argument in the Tourist Guide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MSc. Iliana Rosabal-Pérez
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present a useful theoretical proposal for the analysis of argumentation within the guidebook genre. The study perspective is supported on the rhetorical-pragmatic perspective of argumentation provided by some authors as well as the theoretical models applied to the study of persuasion in guidebooks suggested by Adam/Bonhomme (1997, Hernández-Santaolalla and Cobo-Durán (2010. The analysis of argumentation in this kind of text must consider a tactical and strategic view of the rhetorical actions; that is to say, not to abstain from the elocution traditional examination since argumentation is an essential devise obtainable in the whole test. Keywords: rhetorical, argumentation, guidebook, rhetorical operations, topical.
Development of a theoretical framework for analyzing cerebrospinal fluid dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vedel Søren
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date hydrocephalus researchers acknowledge the need for rigorous but utilitarian fluid mechanics understanding and methodologies in studying normal and hydrocephalic intracranial dynamics. Pressure volume models and electric circuit analogs introduced pressure into volume conservation; but control volume analysis enforces independent conditions on pressure and volume. Previously, utilization of clinical measurements has been limited to understanding of the relative amplitude and timing of flow, volume and pressure waveforms; qualitative approaches without a clear framework for meaningful quantitative comparison. Methods Control volume analysis is presented to introduce the reader to the theoretical background of this foundational fluid mechanics technique for application to general control volumes. This approach is able to directly incorporate the diverse measurements obtained by clinicians to better elucidate intracranial dynamics and progression to disorder. Results Several examples of meaningful intracranial control volumes and the particular measurement sets needed for the analysis are discussed. Conclusion Control volume analysis provides a framework to guide the type and location of measurements and also a way to interpret the resulting data within a fundamental fluid physics analysis.
Exploratory experimental and theoretical studies of cyclone gasification of wood powder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fredriksson, Christian
1999-11-01
This thesis describes an exploratory experimental and theoretical study of gasification of wood powder in a cyclone gasifier. The generated gas could be used to operate a gas turbine in a combined cycle power plant. The objective has been to develop the understanding of cyclone gasification by experimental studies of the performance of a cyclone designed in principle as a separation cyclone and by comparisons between the experimental results and theoretical predictions. The experiments were carried out with commercial Swedish wood powder fuels, injected with air or steam/air mixture through two diametrically opposite tangential inlets and gasified at atmospheric pressure in cyclones of two different configurations with a volume of about 0.034 m{sup 3}. The studies show that stable gasification of this fuel can be obtained for a specific fuel feeding rate of about 5 MW/m{sup 3} cyclone volume for equivalence ratios above 0.15 and that the equivalence ratio had to be kept below about 0.4 in order to avoid material temperatures above 950 deg C. A cyclone with a short outlet pipe, designed as a conventional separation cyclone was found to give lower char conversion than a modified cyclone with a long outlet pipe. The heating value of the gas was found to be approximately 4.5 MJ/kg. The dust load in the product gas was measured to between 1000 and 2500 mg/Nm{sup 3}. It was possible to separate at least 40-60% of the potassium and 60-90% of the sodium supplied with the wood. The alkali that left the cyclone with the product gas appear to be in solid or melted phase in the unseparated char particles and consequently not vaporised during gasification. As the K and Na were assumed to remain within the particles during gasification, it was concluded that to reduce the amount of alkali metals in the product gas it would be necessary to improve the particle separation efficiency. The results of the theoretical modelling, using the existing models in the commercial software CFX
Theoretical and observational studies of stellar activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, J.H.M.M.
1984-01-01
In the theoretical part of this thesis, doubly-diffusive MHD instabilities are studied as a means of breaking up a diffuse magnetic field at the bottom of the solar convection zone. The analysis is linear and local, and assumes short meridional wavelengths; the effects of rotation and diffusion of vorticity, magnetic fields and heat are included. Results show that the instability depends sensitively on the temperature stratification, but rather insensitively on the assumed magnetic field configuration; instability time scales considerably less than the solar cycle period can be easily obtained. In the observational part of the thesis, results are reported of a survey of the x-ray emission of stars with shallow connection zones to study the onset of convection and dynamo activity along the main sequence. Complications arising from stellar multiplicity are discussed extensively; it is demonstrated that binaries have statistically higher x-ray luminosities; and it is shown that physical parameters can only be deduced from single stars. It is further shown that the x-ray luminosities of stars with spectral type in the color range 0.1 less than or equal to B. V less than or equal to 0.5 increase rapidly, whereas stars with B. V approx. 0.0 appear to have no intrinsic x-ray emission at presently detectable levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mantsinen, M.
1999-01-01
Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in
Theoretical Studies of Alfven Waves and Energetic Particle Physics in Fusion Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Liu [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2017-12-20
This report summarizes major theoretical findings in the linear as well as nonlinear physics of Alfvén waves and energetic particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. On the linear physics, a variational formulation, based on the separation of singular and regular spatial scales, for drift-Alfvén instabilities excited by energetic particles is established. This variational formulation is then applied to derive the general fishbone-like dispersion relations corresponding to the various Alfvén eigenmodes and energetic-particle modes. It is further employed to explore in depth the low-frequency Alfvén eigenmodes and demonstrate the non-perturbative nature of the energetic particles. On the nonlinear physics, new novel findings are obtained on both the nonlinear wave-wave interactions and nonlinear wave-energetic particle interactions. It is demonstrated that both the energetic particles and the fine radial mode structures could qualitatively affect the nonlinear evolution of Alfvén eigenmodes. Meanwhile, a theoretical approach based on the Dyson equation is developed to treat self-consistently the nonlinear interactions between Alfvén waves and energetic particles, and is then applied to explain simulation results of energetic-particle modes. Relevant list of journal publications on the above findings is also included.
Theoretical analysis of the vibration of axisymmetric liquid bridges of arbitrary shape
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montanero, J.M. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)
2003-01-01
A liquid bridge consists of a mass of liquid sustained by the action of capillary forces between two parallel disks. The dynamics of these liquid columns has been extensively analysed both theoretically and experimentally over the last decades. Many of the studies have focused on the dynamical response of cylindrical liquid bridges subjected to the action of an oscillatory microgravity field due to, for instance, an in-phase vibration of the supporting disks. There have been fewer studies dealing with the vibration of axisymmetric liquid bridges of arbitrary shape. In this paper the dynamics of rotating inviscid axisymmetric liquid bridges is analysed considering the combined effect of residual gravity, the inequality of the disks and the liquid bridge volume. The results are calculated numerically by using the one-dimensional Cosserat model and the full three-dimensional description. The excitation is assumed to be of small amplitude and harmonic, so that the theoretical models are linearized and the analysis is performed in the frequency domain. The details of the numerical methods proposed are discussed. Comparison between the values of the first resonance frequency obtained from both models shows an excellent agreement for long liquid bridges, the discrepancies increasing as the value of the slenderness decreases. (orig.)
Hash functions and information theoretic security
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagheri, Nasoor; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Naderi, Majid
2009-01-01
Information theoretic security is an important security notion in cryptography as it provides a true lower bound for attack complexities. However, in practice attacks often have a higher cost than the information theoretic bound. In this paper we study the relationship between information theoretic...
Theoretical study on device efficiency of pulsed liquid jet pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Chuanchang; Lu Hongqi; Wang Shicheng; Cheng Mingchuan
2001-01-01
The influence of the main factors on device efficiency of pulsed liquid jet pump with gas-liquid piston is analysed, the theoretical equation and its time-averaged solution of pulsed liquid jet pump device efficiency are derived. The theoretical and experimental results show that the efficiency of transmission of energy and mass to use pulsed jet is greatly raised, compared with steady jet, in the same device of liquid jet pump. The calculating results of time-averaged efficiency of pulsed liquid jet pump are approximately in agreement with the experimental results in our and foreign countries
Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Patelski, Piotr; Sapińska, Ewelina; Księżopolska, Mirosława
2013-05-01
In this study, an evaluation of intermediate products of plum processing as potential raw materials for distillates production was performed. Effects of composition of mashes on ethanol yield, chemical composition and taste, and flavor of the obtained spirits were determined. The obtained results showed that spontaneous fermentations of the tested products of plum processing with native microflora of raisins resulted in lower ethanol yields, compared to the ones fermented with wine yeast Saccharomyces bayanus. The supplementation of mashes with 120 g/L of sucrose caused an increase in ethanol contents from 6.2 ± 0.2 ÷ 6.5 ± 0.2% v/v in reference mashes (without sucrose addition, fermented with S. bayanus) to ca. 10.3 ± 0.3% v/v, where its highest yields amounted to 94.7 ± 2.9 ÷ 95.6 ± 2.9% of theoretical capacity, without negative changes in raw material originality of distillates. The concentrations of volatile compounds in the obtained distillates exceeding 2000 mg/L alcohol 100% v/v and low content of methanol and hydrocyanic acid, as well as their good taste and aroma make the examined products of plum processing be very attractive raw materials for the plum distillates production. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®
δ-Cut Decision-Theoretic Rough Set Approach: Model and Attribute Reductions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hengrong Ju
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Decision-theoretic rough set is a quite useful rough set by introducing the decision cost into probabilistic approximations of the target. However, Yao’s decision-theoretic rough set is based on the classical indiscernibility relation; such a relation may be too strict in many applications. To solve this problem, a δ-cut decision-theoretic rough set is proposed, which is based on the δ-cut quantitative indiscernibility relation. Furthermore, with respect to criterions of decision-monotonicity and cost decreasing, two different algorithms are designed to compute reducts, respectively. The comparisons between these two algorithms show us the following: (1 with respect to the original data set, the reducts based on decision-monotonicity criterion can generate more rules supported by the lower approximation region and less rules supported by the boundary region, and it follows that the uncertainty which comes from boundary region can be decreased; (2 with respect to the reducts based on decision-monotonicity criterion, the reducts based on cost minimum criterion can obtain the lowest decision costs and the largest approximation qualities. This study suggests potential application areas and new research trends concerning rough set theory.
Results obtained by Trillo Nuclear Power Plant in 2001
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solar, V.
2002-01-01
Unification of the Almaraz and Trillo plant managements was given a strong boost with unification of the central offices and management computer platforms (economic and technical) and with signature of an agreement with Madrid's trade unions providing for appropriate management of surpluses and the transfer of knowledge between people leaving the company and those taking their place. The operating results have been maintained at a high level although they were lower than last year, which was exceptional. The plant was on line for 7,979 hours, most of them at full load. (Author)
A theoretical prediction of critical heat flux in subcooled pool boiling during power transients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.; Gunnerson, F.S.
1988-01-01
Understanding and predicting critical heat flux (CHF) behavior during steady-state and transient conditions are of fundamenatal interest in the design, operation, safety of boiling and two-phase flow devices. This paper discusses the results of a comprehensive theoretical study made specifically to model transient CHF behavior in subcooled pool boiling. This study is based upon a simplified steady-state CHF model in terms of the vapor mass growth period. The results obtained from this theory indicate favorable agreement with the experimental data from cylindrical heaters with small radii. The statistical nature of the vapor mass behavior in transient boiling also is considered and upper and lower limits for the current theory are established. Various factors that affect the discrepancy between the data and the theory are discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katarzyna Nagel
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The article aims to discuss the relationship between economic growth and unemployment as well as related determinant factors based on literature review. The traditional approach presents this relationship through the prism of the effects of creation, capitalization, pool of savings and creative destruction. Nowadays, an increasing number of researchers attach more importance to the impact of institutional factors, such as minimum and efficiency wages or the flexibility of the labor market. Both theoretical and empirical research reveal both the evolution of the relevant views and the lack of consistency between the concepts explaining the relationship between economic growth and unemployment in different regions of the world and in different groups of countries.
Dispersion-theoretical analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belushkin, M.
2007-09-29
The structure of the proton and the neutron is of fundamental importance for the study of the strong interaction dynamics over a wide range of momentum transfers. The nucleon form factors encode information on the internal structure of the nucleon as probed by the electromagnetic interaction, and, to a certain extent, reflect the charge and magnetisation distributions within the proton and the neutron. In this thesis we report on our investigation of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and the neutron with dispersion relation techniques, including known experimental input on the {pi}{pi}, K anti K and the {rho}{pi} continua and perturbative QCD constraints. We include new experimental data on the pion form factor and the nucleon form factors in our simultaneous analysis of all four form factors in both the space- and the timelike regions for all momentum transfers, and perform Monte- Carlo sampling in order to obtain theoretical uncertainty bands. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on the pion cloud of the nucleon, the nucleon radii and the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule, and present our results of a model-independent approach to estimating two-photon effects in elastic electron-proton scattering. (orig.)
Dispersion-theoretical analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belushkin, M.
2007-01-01
The structure of the proton and the neutron is of fundamental importance for the study of the strong interaction dynamics over a wide range of momentum transfers. The nucleon form factors encode information on the internal structure of the nucleon as probed by the electromagnetic interaction, and, to a certain extent, reflect the charge and magnetisation distributions within the proton and the neutron. In this thesis we report on our investigation of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and the neutron with dispersion relation techniques, including known experimental input on the ππ, K anti K and the ρπ continua and perturbative QCD constraints. We include new experimental data on the pion form factor and the nucleon form factors in our simultaneous analysis of all four form factors in both the space- and the timelike regions for all momentum transfers, and perform Monte- Carlo sampling in order to obtain theoretical uncertainty bands. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on the pion cloud of the nucleon, the nucleon radii and the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule, and present our results of a model-independent approach to estimating two-photon effects in elastic electron-proton scattering. (orig.)
Sintering of B{sub 4}C powder obtained by a modified carbo-thermal reaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rocha, R.M.; Kazumi, M.H.; Goncalves, D.P.; Melo, F.C.L. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA) - Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50 Campus do CTA - Vila das Acacias, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil)
2005-07-01
Boron carbide is one of the hardest materials and a highly refractory material that is of great interest for structural, electronic and nuclear applications. B{sub 4}C is commercially manufactured by the carbo-thermal reduction of a mixture of boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in an batch electric arc furnace process. However the carbo-thermal reaction on the stoichiometric starting composition results an excess carbon residue because of the boron loss in the form of B{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Thus, a modified carbo-thermal reaction is applied with an excess B{sub 2}O{sub 3} to compensate the loss and to obtain stoichiometric powders. The aim of this work is to study the sinterability of this powder with the lower carbon residue acting as sintering additive. Pressureless sintering in the temperatures of 1900 deg. C/30 min and 2100 deg. C/30 min in argon atmosphere were applied. The synthesized powders were analysed by XRD and SEM. Density of 94% of theoretical density was achieved for sample prepared with the powder obtained with 50% B{sub 2}O{sub 3} excess synthesized at 1700 deg. C/15 min. (authors)
Report of test and research results on atomic energy obtained in national institutes in fiscal 1985
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-01-01
As for the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy in national institutes, the budget was appropriated for the first time in fiscal year 1956, and since then, the many valuable results of research have been obtained so far in the diversified fields of nuclear fusion, safety research, the irradiation of foods, medicine and others, thus the test and research accomplished the large role for promoting the utilization of atomic energy in Japan. In this report, the gists of the results of the test and research on the utilization of atomic energy carried out by national institutes in fiscal year 1985 are collected. No.1 of this report was published in 1960, and this is No.26. It is desired to increase the understanding about the recent trend and the results of the test and research on atomic energy utilization with this book. The researches on nuclear fusion, engineering safety and environmental radioactivity safety, the irradiation of foods, the countermeasures against cancer, fertilized soil, the quality improvement of brewing and farm products, the protection of farm products and the improvement of breeding, diagnosis and medical treatment, pharmaceuticals, environmental hygiene, the application to physiology and pathology, radiochemistry, radiation measurement, process analysis, nuclear reactor materials, nuclear powered ships, civil engineering, radioactivation analysis and injury prevention are reported. (Kako, I.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laporta, V.; Chakrabarti, K.; Celiberto, R.; Janev, R. K.; Mezei, J. Zs.; Niyonzima, S.; Tennyson, J.; Schneider, I.F.
2017-01-01
A theoretical study of resonant vibrational excitation, dissociative recombination and dissociative excitation processes of the beryllium monohydride cation, BeH"+ , induced by electron impact, is reported. Full sets of ro-vibrationally-resolved cross sections and of the corresponding Maxwellian rate coefficients are presented for the three processes. Particular emphasis is given to the high-energy behaviour. Potential curves of "2σ"+, "2σ and "2δ symmetries and the corresponding resonance widths, obtained from R-matrix calculations, provide the input for calculations which use a local complex-potential model for resonant collisions in each of the three symmetries. Rotational motion of nuclei and isotopic effects are also discussed. The relevant results are compared with those obtained using a multichannel quantum defect theory method. Full results are available from the Phys4Entry database.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueroa, Aldo; Meunier, Patrice; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Cuevas, Sergio; Ramos, Eduardo
2014-01-01
We present a combination of experiment, theory, and modelling on laminar mixing at large Péclet number. The flow is produced by oscillating electromagnetic forces in a thin electrolytic fluid layer, leading to oscillating dipoles, quadrupoles, octopoles, and disordered flows. The numerical simulations are based on the Diffusive Strip Method (DSM) which was recently introduced (P. Meunier and E. Villermaux, “The diffusive strip method for scalar mixing in two-dimensions,” J. Fluid Mech. 662, 134–172 (2010)) to solve the advection-diffusion problem by combining Lagrangian techniques and theoretical modelling of the diffusion. Numerical simulations obtained with the DSM are in reasonable agreement with quantitative dye visualization experiments of the scalar fields. A theoretical model based on log-normal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of stretching factors, characteristic of homogeneous turbulence in the Batchelor regime, allows to predict the PDFs of scalar in agreement with numerical and experimental results. This model also indicates that the PDFs of scalar are asymptotically close to log-normal at late stages, except for the large concentration levels which correspond to low stretching factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waskowska, A; Gerward, L; Olsen, J Staun; Feliz, M; Llusar, R; Gracia, L; Marques, M; Recio, J M
2004-01-01
The high-pressure structural behaviour of the cubic spinel CdCr 2 Se 4 (space group Fd3barm) and tetragonal CdGa 2 Se 4 (I4bar) has been investigated experimentally and theoretically in order to understand the large difference in compressibility between the two selenides. The experimental values of the bulk modulus for these compounds are 101(2) and 48(2) GPa, respectively. These values compare well with 92 and 44 GPa obtained from first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory formalism. The observed difference in compressibility between the cubic and tetragonal structures can be understood in terms of polyhedral analysis. In a hypothetical cubic spinel structure Fd3barm), the calculated bulk modulus for CdGa 2 Se 4 is 85 GPa. This value together with the experimental and theoretical results for CdCr 2 Se 4 suggest that the selenium-based cubic spinels should have a bulk modulus about 100 GPa, which is half the value found for the oxide spinels
Theoretical expectations for the muon's electric dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Jonathan L.; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael
2001-01-01
We examine the muon's electric dipole moment d μ from a variety of theoretical perspectives. We point out that the reported deviation in the muon's g-2 can be due partially or even entirely to a new physics contribution to the muon's electric dipole moment. In fact, the recent g-2 measurement provides the most stringent bound on d μ to date. This ambiguity could be definitively resolved by the dedicated search for d μ recently proposed. We then consider both model-independent and supersymmetric frameworks. Under the assumptions of scalar degeneracy, proportionality, and flavor conservation, the theoretical expectations for d μ in supersymmetry fall just below the proposed sensitivity. However, nondegeneracy can give an order of magnitude enhancement, and lepton flavor violation can lead to d μ ∼10 -22 e cm, two orders of magnitude above the sensitivity of the d μ experiment. We present compact expressions for leptonic dipole moments and lepton flavor violating amplitudes. We also derive new limits on the amount of flavor violation allowed and demonstrate that approximations previously used to obtain such limits are highly inaccurate in much of parameter space
Amusia, Miron Ya; Yarzhemsky, Victor
2012-01-01
The aim of this book is to present highly accurate and extensive theoretical Atomic data and to give a survey of selected calculational methods for atomic physics, used to obtain these data. The book presents the results of calculations of cross sections and probabilities of a broad variety of atomic processes with participation of photons and electrons, namely on photoabsorption, electron scattering and accompanying effects. Included are data for photoabsorption and electron scattering cross-sections and probabilities of vacancy decay formed for a large number of atoms and ions. Attention is also given to photoionization and vacancy decay in endohedrals and to positron-atom scattering. The book is richly illustrated. The methods used are one-electron Hartree-Fock and the technique of Feynman diagrams that permits to include many-electron correlations. This is done in the frames of the Random Phase approximation with exchange and the many-body perturbation theory. Newly obtained and previously collected atomi...
İnkaya, Ersin; Dinçer, Muharrem; Şahan, Emine; Yıldırım, İsmail
2013-10-01
In this paper, we will report a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the molecular structure and spectroscopic parameters (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR) of 5-benzoyl-4-phenyl-2-methylthio-1H-pyrimidine. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with Z = 2. The molecular geometry was also optimized using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets in ground state and compared with the experimental data. All the assignments of the theoretical frequencies were performed by potential energy distributions using VEDA 4 program. Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecules has been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with electrostatic potential (ESP). Also, non-linear optical properties of the title compound were performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The theoretical results showed an excellent agreement with the experimental values.
Results obtained during wall breaching research
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Hattingh, S
2008-11-01
Full Text Available To understand the physics of what is happening inside the wall directly after the detonation and the application of this knowledge in the improvement of the charge Measure the shock/stress waves in the masonry material and then in the wall as a whole... to maximise the effect of the charges on the walls and to broaden the knowledge of the physics of shock and stress waves. The thickness and characteristics of walls are not usually known in an operation. The effect of the charges on real buildings is still...
Group theoretic approach for solving the problem of diffusion of a drug through a thin membrane
Abd-El-Malek, Mina B.; Kassem, Magda M.; Meky, Mohammed L. M.
2002-03-01
The transformation group theoretic approach is applied to study the diffusion process of a drug through a skin-like membrane which tends to partially absorb the drug. Two cases are considered for the diffusion coefficient. The application of one parameter group reduces the number of independent variables by one, and consequently the partial differential equation governing the diffusion process with the boundary and initial conditions is transformed into an ordinary differential equation with the corresponding conditions. The obtained differential equation is solved numerically using the shooting method, and the results are illustrated graphically and in tables.
Collaborative Learning: Theoretical Foundations and Applicable Strategies to University Teaching
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nestor D. Roselli
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Collaborative learning is a construct that identifies a current strong field, both in face-to-face and virtual education. Firstly, three converging theoretical sources are analyzed: socio-cognitive conflict theory, intersubjectivity theory and distributed cognition theory. Secondly, a model of strategies that can be implemented by teachers to develop socio-cognitive collaboration is presented. This model integrates and systematizes several academic group animation techniques developed within the collaborative learning field. These integrated techniques, within a coherent and unified didactic intention, allow talking more about strategies than independent and dissociated techniques. Each strategy is specifically described, which refers to six areas: encouragement of dialogue, listening to others and reciprocal assessment; collaboration for negotiation and consensus building; activity organization; study and appropriation of bibliographic information; conceptual development; collective writing. These strategies proposed (designed to stimulate the collaboration between 2, 4 and exceptionally, 6 or 8 students are not the only possible strategies, they can be combined with the ones the teacher might suggest. The strict pattern of each strategy is a characteristic of the proposal. The teacher is also encouraged to benchmark the results obtained using each strategy and those obtained using individual or non-collaborative strategies. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the implementation of these strategies are discussed.
Experimental and theoretical study on forced convection film boiling heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Qiusheng
2001-01-01
Theoretical solutions of forced convection film boiling heat transfer from horizontal cylinders in saturated liquids were obtained based on a two-phase laminar boundary layer film boiling model. It was clarified that author's experimental data for the cylinders with the nondimensional diameters, D, of around 1.3 in water and in Freon-113 agreed with the values of theoretical numerical solutions based on the two-phase laminar boundary layer model with the smooth vapor-liquid interface except those for low flow velocities. A forced convection film boiling heat transfer correlation including the radiation contribution from the cylinders with various diameters in saturated and subcooled liquids was developed based on the two-phase laminar boundary layer film boiling model and the experimental data for water and Freon-113 at wide ranges of flow velocities, surface superheats, system pressures and cylinder diameters. (author)
Image-derived input function obtained in a 3TMR-brainPET
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, N.A. da [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, University of Lisbon (Portugal); Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine - 4, Juelich (Germany); Herzog, H., E-mail: h.herzog@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine - 4, Juelich (Germany); Weirich, C.; Tellmann, L.; Rota Kops, E. [Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine - 4, Juelich (Germany); Hautzel, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine (KME), University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty at Research Center Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Almeida, P. [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, University of Lisbon (Portugal)
2013-02-21
Aim: The combination of a high-resolution MR-compatible BrainPET insert operated within a 3 T MAGNETOM Trio MR scanner is an excellent tool for obtaining an image derived input function (IDIF), due to simultaneous imaging. In this work, we explore the possibility of obtaining an IDIF from volumes of interest (VOI) defined over the carotid arteries (CAs) using the MR data. Material and methods: FDG data from three patients without brain disorders were included. VOIs were drawn bilaterally over the CAs on a MPRAGE image using a 50% isocontour (MR50VOI). CA PET/MR co-registration was examined based on an individual and combined CA co-registration. After that, to estimate the IDIF, the MR50VOI average (IDIF-A), four hottest pixels per plane (IDIF-4H) and four hottest pixels in VOI (IDIF-4V) were considered. A model-based correction for residual partial volume effects involving venous blood samples was applied, from which partial volume (PV) and spillover (SP) coefficients were estimated. Additionally, a theoretical PV coefficient (PVt) was calculated based on MR50VOI. Results: The results show an excellent co-registration between the MR and PET, with an area under the curve ratio between both co-registration methods of 1.00±0.04. A good agreement between PV and PVt was found for IDIF-A, with PV of 0.39±0.06 and PVt 0.40±0.03, and for IDIF-4H, with PV of 0.47±0.05 and PVt 0.47±0.03. The SPs were 0.20±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for IDIF-A and IDIF-4H, respectively. Conclusion: The integration of a high resolution BrainPET in an MR scanner allows to obtain an IDIF from an MR-based VOI. This must be corrected for a residual partial volume effect.
Electrochemistry of chlorogenic acid: experimental and theoretical studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Namazian, Mansoor [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: namazian@yazduni.ac.ir; Zare, Hamid R. [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2005-08-10
Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and rotating disk electrode voltammetry as well as quantum chemical methods, are used for electrochemical study of chlorogenic acid, as an important biological molecule. The standard formal potential, diffusion coefficient, and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of chlorogenic acid in aqueous solution are investigated. Acidic dissociation constant of chlorogenic acid is also obtained. Quantum mechanical calculations on oxidation of chlorogenic acid in aqueous solution, using density functional theory are presented. The change of Gibbs free energy and entropy of oxidation of chlorogenic acid are calculated using thermochemistry calculations. The calculations in aqueous solution are carried out with the use of polarizable continuum solvation method. Theoretical standard electrode potential of chlorogenic acid is achieved to be 0.580 V versus standard calomel electrode (SCE) which is in agreement with the experimental value of 0.617 V obtained experimentally in this work. The difference is consistent with the values we previously reported for other quinone derivatives.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranda Morales, Paola Maria
2011-01-01
This work presents a theoretical study of a global environmental management structure. This structure can be made possible after a new Global Environmental Order (CID) is established. The new order should be supported by the international development politics. It also has to be funded in the understanding of the interaction dynamics: ecosystem- culture. The theoretical studies of this work on global environmental Management allowed identifying the main difficulties to be overcome by the CID in order to fulfill its role as a leading actor in the global environmental transformation. The first issue to be considered by the CID is related to the fact that the actual regulation and follow up politics are insufficient. A second difficulty has to do with the very few results obtained on guaranteeing fair exchange of information and technology between Northern and Southern countries.
Niemi, Hannele
This monograph reports on an empirical survey of 394 secondary school students investigating their desire to seek the meaning of their own lives. The theoretical framework upon which the study was based is that of Viktor E. Frankl's hypotheses that a human being wants to seek the meaning in his own life. The questionnaire consisted of tests…
Final Report. Research in Theoretical High Energy Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greensite, Jeffrey P. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Golterman, Maarten F.L. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)
2015-04-30
Grant-supported research in theoretical high-energy physics, conducted in the period 1992-2015 is briefly described, and a full listing of published articles result from those research activities is supplied.
Theoretical chemistry advances and perspectives
Eyring, Henry
1980-01-01
Theoretical Chemistry: Advances and Perspectives, Volume 5 covers articles concerning all aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the mean spherical approximation for simple electrolyte solutions; the representation of lattice sums as Mellin-transformed products of theta functions; and the evaluation of two-dimensional lattice sums by number theoretic means. The text also describes an application of contour integration; a lattice model of quantum fluid; as well as the computational aspects of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. Chemists and physicists will find the book usef
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsai Min-Jen
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Digital watermarking techniques have been developed to protect the intellectual property. A digital watermarking system is basically judged based on two characteristics: security robustness and image quality. In order to obtain a robust visible watermarking in practice, we present a novel watermarking algorithm named adaptive content and contrast aware (ACOCOA, which considers the host image content and watermark texture. In addition, we propose a powerful security architecture against attacks for visible watermarking system which is based on game-theoretic approach that provides an equilibrium condition solution for the decision maker by studying the effects of transmission power on intensity and perceptual efficiency. The experimental results demonstrate that the feasibility of the proposed approach not only provides effectiveness and robustness for the watermarked images, but also allows the watermark encoder to obtain the best adaptive watermarking strategy under attacks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsoukos, S; Kateris, A; Kalivas, N; Spyrou, G; Panayiotakis, G [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 pAtras (Greece); Kandarakis, I; Gavouras, D [Department of Medical Instrumentation Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Athens (Greece)
1999-12-31
A theoretical model predicting the intensity of light emitted by x-ray imaging phosphor screens per unit of area and time over incident x-ray flux (absolute efficiency) was developed. The model takes into account : A) the structure of the screens which consists of luminescent grains embedded in a binding matrix. B) the direct deposition of energy by x-ray absorption effects.. C) the re-absorption of K fluorescence characteristic x-rays produced when the x-ray energy exceeds the energy of the K absorption edge of the phosphor material. To test the model a set of (Gd,La)2O2S:Tb phosphor screens was prepared by sedimentation in the laboratory. Experimental absolute efficiency data were obtained at x-ray tube voltage range from 40 to 160 kVp. The coincidence between experimental and theoretical results were satisfactory. (authors) 7 refs., 4 figs.
Obtaining highly excited eigenstates of the localized XX chain via DMRG-X
Devakul, Trithep; Khemani, Vedika; Pollmann, Frank; Huse, David A.; Sondhi, S. L.
2017-10-01
We benchmark a variant of the recently introduced density matrix renormalization group (DMRG)-X algorithm against exact results for the localized random field XX chain. We find that the eigenstates obtained via DMRG-X exhibit a highly accurate l-bit description for system sizes much bigger than the direct, many-body, exact diagonalization in the spin variables is able to access. We take advantage of the underlying free fermion description of the XX model to accurately test the strengths and limitations of this algorithm for large system sizes. We discuss the theoretical constraints on the performance of the algorithm from the entanglement properties of the eigenstates, and its actual performance at different values of disorder. A small but significant improvement to the algorithm is also presented, which helps significantly with convergence. We find that, at high entanglement, DMRG-X shows a bias towards eigenstates with low entanglement, but can be improved with increased bond dimension. This result suggests that one must be careful when applying the algorithm for interacting many-body localized spin models near a transition. This article is part of the themed issue 'Breakdown of ergodicity in quantum systems: from solids to synthetic matter'.
Kizilkaya, Ali Can; Fellah, Mehmet Ferdi; Onal, Isik
2010-03-01
The gas-phase radical chain reactions which utilize O 2 as the oxidant to produce propylene oxide (PO) are investigated through theoretical calculations. The transition states and energy profiles were obtained for each path. The rate constants were also calculated. The energetics for the competing pathways indicate that PO can be formed selectively due to its relatively low activation barrier (9.3 kcal/mol) which is in a good agreement with the experimental value (11 kcal/mol) of gas-phase propylene epoxidation. The formation of the acrolein and combustion products have relatively high activation barriers and are not favored. These results also support the recent experimental findings.
Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul
1988-01-01
Aircraft and ground vehicle friction data collected during the Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program under winter runway conditions are discussed and test results are summarized. The relationship between the different ground vehicle friction measurements obtained on compacted snow- and ice-covered conditions is defined together with the correlation to aircraft tire friction performance under similar runway conditions.
New results on transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS
Parsamyan, Bakur
2015-01-01
One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of nucleon via spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) of polarized leptons (and soon also Drell-Yan (DY) reactions with $\\pi^-$) off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and polarized $^6LiD$ and $NH_3$ targets and are foreseen with 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam on polarized $NH_3$. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon and are widely used in theoretical analyses and global data fits. Future first ever polarized DY-data from COMPASS compared with SIDIS results will open a new chapter probing general principles of QCD TMD-formalism. In this review main focus will be given to the very recent COMPASS results obtained for...
Gravitational waves — A review on the theoretical foundations of gravitational radiation
Dirkes, Alain
2018-05-01
In this paper, we review the theoretical foundations of gravitational waves in the framework of Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Following Einstein’s early efforts, we first derive the linearized Einstein field equations and work out the corresponding gravitational wave equation. Moreover, we present the gravitational potentials in the far away wave zone field point approximation obtained from the relaxed Einstein field equations. We close this review by taking a closer look on the radiative losses of gravitating n-body systems and present some aspects of the current interferometric gravitational waves detectors. Each section has a separate appendix contribution where further computational details are displayed. To conclude, we summarize the main results and present a brief outlook in terms of current ongoing efforts to build a spaced-based gravitational wave observatory.
Theoretical study of rock mass investigation efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holmen, Johan G.; Outters, Nils
2002-05-01
The study concerns a mathematical modelling of a fractured rock mass and its investigations by use of theoretical boreholes and rock surfaces, with the purpose of analysing the efficiency (precision) of such investigations and determine the amount of investigations necessary to obtain reliable estimations of the structural-geological parameters of the studied rock mass. The study is not about estimating suitable sample sizes to be used in site investigations.The purpose of the study is to analyse the amount of information necessary for deriving estimates of the geological parameters studied, within defined confidence intervals and confidence level In other words, how the confidence in models of the rock mass (considering a selected number of parameters) will change with amount of information collected form boreholes and surfaces. The study is limited to a selected number of geometrical structural-geological parameters: Fracture orientation: mean direction and dispersion (Fisher Kappa and SRI). Different measures of fracture density (P10, P21 and P32). Fracture trace-length and strike distributions as seen on horizontal windows. A numerical Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) was used for representation of a fractured rock mass. The DFN-model was primarily based on the properties of an actual fracture network investigated at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The rock mass studied (DFN-model) contained three different fracture sets with different orientations and fracture densities. The rock unit studied was statistically homogeneous. The study includes a limited sensitivity analysis of the properties of the DFN-model. The study is a theoretical and computer-based comparison between samples of fracture properties of a theoretical rock unit and the known true properties of the same unit. The samples are derived from numerically generated boreholes and surfaces that intersect the DFN-network. Two different boreholes are analysed; a vertical borehole and a borehole that is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aline Midori Kuroda
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The quest for understanding the relationship between the capital structure and investment decisions resulted in many different authors contribution. In the Brazilian economic scenario, an empirical study performed by Albuquerque and Matias (2013 identified the existence of a strong negative relation between finance leverage and investment in Brazilian public companies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the theory of finance supports these empirical findings or if there is a discrepancy between the practical behavior and the theoretical rules. To this end, it was performed a bibliographic research of scientific works related with this theme, among them Carneiro, Salles and Wu (2006, Hadlock and Pierce (2010 and Dang (2011. The methodology of this research can be classified as exploratory, according to its purpose, qualitative in terms of approach and bibliographical considering its technical procedures. All the developed analysis led to the formulation of six theoretical propositions that support the relation between financial leverage and investment. The negative and positive effects of debt were considered according to growth opportunities, the supply of credit in the Brazilian context, the raising of risk and cost of capital and the allocation of resources obtained through external funding. Briefly, it can be concluded that these six theoretical propositions could serve as the fundamentals of the relation in question, two being based on the under-investment and overinvestment theories and the other four, on the Brazilian financial market aspects. All of them must be considered in the decision making of a financial manager, especially the related with the financing options.
Combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor: common rules and theoretical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun; Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G.
2013-01-01
Two or more factors can simultaneously make their combined effects on the biological objects. This study has focused on theoretical approach to synergistic interaction due to the combined action of radiation and another factor on cell inactivation. A mathematical model for the synergistic interaction of different environmental agents was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversibly damaged cells after combined exposures. The model takes into account the synergistic interaction of agents and based on the supposition that additional effective damages responsible for the synergy are irreversible and originated from an interaction of ineffective sub lesions. The experimental results regarding the irreversible component of radiation damage of diploid yeast cells simultaneous exposed to heat with ionizing radiation or UV light are presented. A good agreement of experimental results with model predictions was demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the mechanism of synergistic interaction of various environmental factors is discussed. (author)
Combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor: common rules and theoretical approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun, E-mail: jkkim@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G., E-mail: vgpetin@yahoo.com [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)
2013-07-01
Two or more factors can simultaneously make their combined effects on the biological objects. This study has focused on theoretical approach to synergistic interaction due to the combined action of radiation and another factor on cell inactivation. A mathematical model for the synergistic interaction of different environmental agents was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversibly damaged cells after combined exposures. The model takes into account the synergistic interaction of agents and based on the supposition that additional effective damages responsible for the synergy are irreversible and originated from an interaction of ineffective sub lesions. The experimental results regarding the irreversible component of radiation damage of diploid yeast cells simultaneous exposed to heat with ionizing radiation or UV light are presented. A good agreement of experimental results with model predictions was demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the mechanism of synergistic interaction of various environmental factors is discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Syrmalenios, Panayotis
1973-01-01
This research thesis addresses the issue of safety of fast neutron reactors, and more particularly is a contribution of the study of mechanisms of interaction between molten fuel and sodium. It aims at developing tools of prediction of consequences of three main types of accidents: local fusion of a fuel rod and contact of the fuel with the surrounding sodium, failure of an assembly due to the fusion of several rods and fuel-coolant interaction within the assembly, and fuel-coolant interaction at the level of the reactor core. The author first proposes a bibliographical analysis of experimental and theoretical studies related to this issue of interaction between a hot body and a cold liquid, and of its consequences. Then, he introduces a mathematical model and its resolution method, and reports the use of the associated code (Corfou) for the interpretation of experimental results: expulsion of cold sodium column by expansion of an overheated sodium mass, fusion of a rod by Joule effect, interaction between UO_2 molten by high frequency with liquid sodium. Finally, the author discusses a comparison between the Corfou code and other models which are being currently developed [fr
Results Obtained in Training Romanian Sport Horses for Jumping Competitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Flavia Luminiţa Bochiş
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A number of 29 equines, Romanian Sport Horse stallions, were taken as green horses, break into the saddle, andteach into basic training while later train as jumpers over three years. The obstacle courses results had been obtainedin our country, in Hungary and in Serbia. There were courses jumped in the national championship, somedemonstrations organized in Romania or in the two foreign countries, or periodically test pattern courses run on theown arena. The best results, respectively more than 50% obstacle courses with no fault points over 3 years, were runby five stallions, and the same percent for 2 seasons, was reached by nine stallions.
Theoretical evaluation of the detectability of random lesions in bayesian emission reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi, Jinyi
2003-01-01
Detecting cancerous lesion is an important task in positron emission tomography (PET). Bayesian methods based on the maximum a posteriori principle (also called penalized maximum likelihood methods) have been developed to deal with the low signal to noise ratio in the emission data. Similar to the filter cut-off frequency in the filtered backprojection method, the prior parameters in Bayesian reconstruction control the resolution and noise trade-off and hence affect detectability of lesions in reconstructed images. Bayesian reconstructions are difficult to analyze because the resolution and noise properties are nonlinear and object-dependent. Most research has been based on Monte Carlo simulations, which are very time consuming. Building on the recent progress on the theoretical analysis of image properties of statistical reconstructions and the development of numerical observers, here we develop a theoretical approach for fast computation of lesion detectability in Bayesian reconstruction. The results can be used to choose the optimum hyperparameter for the maximum lesion detectability. New in this work is the use of theoretical expressions that explicitly model the statistical variation of the lesion and background without assuming that the object variation is (locally) stationary. The theoretical results are validated using Monte Carlo simulations. The comparisons show good agreement between the theoretical predications and the Monte Carlo results
A Theory of Utility Conditionals: Paralogical Reasoning from Decision-Theoretic Leakage
Bonnefon, Jean-Francois
2009-01-01
Many "if p, then q" conditionals have decision-theoretic features, such as antecedents or consequents that relate to the utility functions of various agents. These decision-theoretic features leak into reasoning processes, resulting in various paralogical conclusions. The theory of utility conditionals offers a unified account of the various forms…
Theoretical study of molecular vibration and Application to linear triatomic molecules: case of OCS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrianavalomahefa, A.
2014-01-01
Our aim is to give a theoretical approach to the calculation of vibrational energy levels of polyatomic molecules. By using matrix calculation, we have to solve an eigenvalue equation that gives normal vibration frequencies of the system. A basis change introduces normal coordinates of vibration, which diagonalize the Hamiltonian. The harmonic approximation gives a rough evaluation of parameters which describe the system. Then, we introduce nonlinear terms to take into account the anharmonicity of interatomic bounds. Morse oscillator gives good approximation for diatomic molecules. We consider cubic and quartic potential terms for polyatomic molecules. We treat the problem both in classical and quantum approach. The results thus obtained are applied to study longitudinal vibration of carbonyl sulfide. [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cambillard, E.P.; Schwab, B.L.
1964-01-01
This report consists of three sections. The first is concerned with the description of different pumps which have been constructed, tests on these which have been completed and the results obtained. The second section presents a theoretical method for the determination of the coefficients, taking in account the break of the magnetic circuit. It is shown that the preliminary design calculations of the annular pumps can be made, neglecting the break of the magnetic circuit, by further assigning essential magnitudes (pressure, losses) with easily calculated coefficients. The third section of this report uses the theoretical bases exposed in the second section, and develop a new annular pump calculation method which takes-into account both the current out of balance and any type of winding. (authors) [fr
Theoretical analysis for the specific heat and thermal parameters of solid C60
Soto, J. R.; Calles, A.; Castro, J. J.
1997-08-01
We present the results of a theoretical analysis for the thermal parameters and phonon contribution to the specific heat in solid C60. The phonon contribution to the specific heat is calculated through the solution of the corresponding dynamical matrix, for different points in the Brillouin zone, and the construccion of the partial and generalized phonon density of states. The force constants are obtained from a first principle calculation, using a SCF Hartree-Fock wave function from the Gaussian 92 program. The thermal parameters reported are the effective temperatures and vibrational amplitudes as a function of temperature. Using this model we present a parametization scheme in order to reproduce the general behaviour of the experimental specific heat for these materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kripal, Ram, E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Yadav, Awadhesh Kumar, E-mail: aky.physics@gmail.com
2015-01-01
The zero field splitting parameter D of Cr{sup 3+} doped diammonium hexaaqua magnesium sulfate (DHMS) are calculated with perturbation formula using crystal field (CF) parameters from superposition model. The theoretically calculated ZFS parameters for Cr{sup 3+} in DHMS single crystal are compared with the experimental value obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The theoretical ZFS parameter D is similar to that from experiment. The energy band positions of optical absorption spectra of Cr{sup 3+} doped DHMS single crystal are calculated with CFA package, which are in good match with experimental values.
Accelerator simulation and theoretical modelling of radiation effects (SMoRE)
2018-01-01
This publication summarizes the findings and conclusions of the IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on accelerator simulation and theoretical modelling of radiation effects, aimed at supporting Member States in the development of advanced radiation-resistant structural materials for implementation in innovative nuclear systems. This aim can be achieved through enhancement of both experimental neutron-emulation capabilities of ion accelerators and improvement of the predictive efficiency of theoretical models and computer codes. This dual approach is challenging but necessary, because outputs of accelerator simulation experiments need adequate theoretical interpretation, and theoretical models and codes need high dose experimental data for their verification. Both ion irradiation investigations and computer modelling have been the specific subjects of the CRP, and the results of these studies are presented in this publication which also includes state-ofthe- art reviews of four major aspects of the project...
[Preoperative psychoprophylaxis in childhood. Results of a hospital program].
Admetlla i Admetlla, I A; Jover i Fulgueira, S
1988-05-01
Results of a surgical psychoprophylaxis program, theoretically and technically framed within psychoanalytic theory is presented. It also comprises a description of the method used, as well as criteria by which authors have determined whether or not a child is ready for surgery. Results obtained with 134 children and a description of those who showed post-surgical disturbances are presented. Analysis is carried out of the percentage of disorders according to age group, showing that highest risk is among children up to five years of age, coinciding with the finding put forth by other authors. Finally some conclusions in relation to prevention of psychologic iatrogenic disorders in pediatric surgery are drawn.
Theoretical and experimental analysis of the behaviour of a photovoltaic pumping system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamrouni, Nejib; Jraidi, Moncef; Cherif, Adnene [High Engineering Faculty of Tunis PB 37, Belvedere, Tunis (Tunisia)
2009-08-15
The aim of the paper is to present the influence of the solar radiation variation on the performances of a stand alone photovoltaic pumping system which consists of photovoltaic generator, dc-dc converter, dc-ac inverter, an immersed group motor-pump and a storage tank that serves a similar purpose to battery storage. Hence a theoretical analysis (modelling and control) of the system is needed. Attention has been paid to the command of the power converters using MPPT and variable V/f laws. The MPPT control allows the extraction of the maximal output power delivered by the PV generator. The inverter ensures the PWM control of the asynchronous motor and a sine wave form of output signals. From the obtained simulation results, we will show that the decrease of the solar radiation degrades performances (the global efficiency and the flow rate) of the PV pumping system. The analysis is validated by simulation and experimental results. (author)
Theoretical studies of surface enhanced hyper-Raman spectroscopy: The chemical enhancement mechanism
Valley, Nicholas; Jensen, Lasse; Autschbach, Jochen; Schatz, George C.
2010-08-01
Hyper-Raman spectra for pyridine and pyridine on the surface of a tetrahedral 20 silver atom cluster are calculated using static hyperpolarizability derivatives obtained from time dependent density functional theory. The stability of the results with respect to choice of exchange-correlation functional and basis set is verified by comparison with experiment and with Raman spectra calculated for the same systems using the same methods. Calculated Raman spectra were found to match well with experiment and previous theoretical calculations. The calculated normal and surface enhanced hyper-Raman spectra closely match experimental results. The chemical enhancement factors for hyper-Raman are generally larger than for Raman (102-104 versus 101-102). Integrated hyper-Raman chemical enhancement factors are presented for a set of substituted pyridines. A two-state model is developed to predict these chemical enhancement factors and this was found to work well for the majority of the molecules considered, providing a rationalization for the difference between hyper-Raman and Raman enhancement factors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roudjane, M.
2007-12-01
The aim of this thesis is to carry out an experimental study of the absorption and emission spectra of the D 2 and HD isotopes, with high resolution, in the VUV domain and to supplement it by a theoretical study of the excited electronic states involved in the observed transitions. The emission spectra of HD and D 2 are produced by Penning discharge source operating under low pressure and are recorded in the spectral range 78 - 170 nm. The recorded spectra contains more than 20.000 lines. The analysis of the spectrum consists in identifying and assigning the lines to the electronic transitions between energy levels of the molecule. The present analysis is based on our theoretical calculations of the ro-vibrational energy levels of the excited electronic states and the transition probabilities from these states towards the energy levels of the fundamental state. The theoretical results are obtained by resolving the coupled equations between the excited electronic states B 1 Σ u 1 , B' 1 Σ u 1 , C 1 Π u 1 and D 1 Π u 1 , taking into account the nonadiabatic couplings between these states, and they are obtained in the adiabatic approximation for the excited electronic states B''B-bar 1 Σ u + , D' 1 Π u 1 and D'' 1 Π u 1 . The equations are resolved using a modern method based on the discretization variables representation method. In addition, we have carried out a study of the absorption spectra of the HD and D 2 molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribokaite, Kristina
2013-01-01
Monoamides and organophosphate are of great interest for the nuclear fuel cycle. Such ligands can selectively extract actinides in liquid-liquid extraction processes. The structure of the extractant (its functional group and its alkyl substituents) has a predominant role in the selective separation of actinides. This thesis concerns the theoretical and experimental studies of model systems in the aim of better understanding of the effect on molecular structures of the complexes. Structures of actinides complexes formed with model ligands in simple media (water or methanol in the presence of nitrate ions) have been characterized. At first, the complexation of uranyl by monoamide and phosphine oxide was studied in water and methanol. Molecular Dynamics simulations and DFT calculations were used to quantify the stability of uranyl complexes with those ligands, and to determine their structural properties. The theoretical results were then compared with experimental results obtained by UV-visible, infrared, Raman and EXAFS on the same chemical systems. The results were used to highlight the greater stability of uranyl complexes with phosphine oxide and monoamides. Further spectroscopic measurements combined with molecular modeling were used to gain a better understanding of the coordination mode of nitrate ion around the uranyl in both water and methanol. Finally, DFT calculations were used to study the influence of the structure of the monoamide or organophosphorus ligand and their interaction with the actinides (IV, VI) including steric effects in the first coordination sphere. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Khoa Hien; Nguyen Thi Ai Nhung; Duong Tuan Quang; Ho Quoc Dai; Nguyen Tien Trung
2015-01-01
A new dansyl-diethylenetriamine-thiourea conjugate (DT) for detection of Hg 2+ ions in aqueous solution has been theoretically designed and compared to our previously published results. The synthetic path, the optimized geometric structure and the characteristics of the DT were found by the theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level. Accordingly, the DT can react with Hg 2+ ion to form a product with quenched fluorescence. It is remarkable that the experimental results are in an excellent agreement with the theoretically evaluated data. (author)
Keenan, F. P.; Thomas, R. J.; Neupert, W. M.; Conlon, E. S.
1994-01-01
Theoretical electron-temperature-sensitive Mg IX emission line ratios are presented for R(sub 1) = I(443.96 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 2) = I(439.17 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 3) = I(443.37 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 4) = I(441.22 A)/I(368.06 A), and R(sub 5) = I(448.28 A)/I(368.06 A). A comparison of these with observational data for a solar active region, obtained during a rocket flight by the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS), reveals excellent agreement between theory and observation for R(sub 1) through R(sub 4), with discrepancies that average only 9%. This provides experimental support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations, and also resolves discrepancies found previously when the theoretical results were compared with solar data from the S082A instrument on board Skylab. However in the case of R(sub 5), the theoretical and observed ratios differ by almost a factor of 2. This may be due to the measured intensity of the 448.28 A line being seriously affected by instrumental effects, as it lies very close to the long wavelength edge of the SERTS spectral coverage (235.46-448.76 A).
Graph theoretical calculation of systems reliability with semi-Markov processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Widmer, U.
1984-06-01
The determination of the state probabilities and related quantities of a system characterized by an SMP (or a homogeneous MP) can be performed by means of graph-theoretical methods. The calculation procedures for semi-Markov processes based on signal flow graphs are reviewed. Some methods from electrotechnics are adapted in order to obtain a representation of the state probabilities by means of trees. From this some formulas are derived for the asymptotic state probabilities and for the mean life-time in reliability considerations. (Auth.)
Theoretical model for ultracold molecule formation via adaptive feedback control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poschinger, Ulrich; Salzmann, Wenzel; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Koch, Christiane P; Kosloff, Ronnie
2006-01-01
We theoretically investigate pump-dump photoassociation of ultracold molecules with amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose, a perturbative model for light-matter interaction is developed and combined with a genetic algorithm for adaptive feedback control of the laser pulse shapes. The model is applied to the formation of 85 Rb 2 molecules in a magneto-optical trap. We find that optimized pulse shapes may maximize the formation of ground state molecules in a specific vibrational state at a pump-dump delay time for which unshaped pulses lead to a minimum of the formation rate. Compared to the maximum formation rate obtained for unshaped pulses at the optimum pump-dump delay, the optimized pulses lead to a significant improvement of about 40% for the target level population. Since our model yields the spectral amplitudes and phases of the optimized pulses, the results are directly applicable in pulse shaping experiments
The creation in question: a brief cartography of a theoretical course
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tais Rodrigues Dassoler
2011-04-01
Full Text Available This article is the result of discussions produced during a theoretical course aboutcreativity in advertising. Instead of teaching how to create, the proposal of the course was to question what characterizes creation. Departing from this question, the route of a theoretical cartography is presented, trough the deconstruction of the idea of creation, the advertising device is shown in its creative demands. Mobilizing different theoretical perspectives, the text approaches creativity’s myth when problematizes the concept of authorship and presents creation as becomings produced by the very advertising device.
Theoretical model estimation of guest diffusion in Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)
Zheng, Bin
2015-08-11
Characterizing molecule diffusion in nanoporous matrices is critical to understanding the novel chemical and physical properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this paper, we developed a theoretical model to fastly and accurately compute the diffusion rate of guest molecules in a zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8). The ideal gas or equilibrium solution diffusion model was modified to contain the effect of periodical media via introducing the possibility of guests passing through the framework gate. The only input in our model is the energy barrier of guests passing through the MOF’s gate. Molecular dynamics (MD) methods were employed to gather the guest density profile, which then was used to deduce the energy barrier values. This produced reliable results that require a simulation time of 5 picoseconds, which is much shorter when using pure MD methods (in the billisecond scale) . Also, we used density functional theory (DFT) methods to obtain the energy profile of guests passing through gates, as this does not require specification of a force field for the MOF degrees of freedom. In the DFT calculation, we only considered one gate of MOFs each time; as this greatly reduced the computational cost. Based on the obtained energy barrier values we computed the diffusion rate of alkane and alcohol in ZIF-8 using our model, which was in good agreement with experimental test results and the calculation values from standard MD model. Our model shows the advantage of obtaining accurate diffusion rates for guests in MOFs for a lower computational cost and shorter calculation time. Thus, our analytic model calculation is especially attractive for high-throughput computational screening of the dynamic performance of guests in a framework.
Set-theoretic methods in control
Blanchini, Franco
2015-01-01
The second edition of this monograph describes the set-theoretic approach for the control and analysis of dynamic systems, both from a theoretical and practical standpoint. This approach is linked to fundamental control problems, such as Lyapunov stability analysis and stabilization, optimal control, control under constraints, persistent disturbance rejection, and uncertain systems analysis and synthesis. Completely self-contained, this book provides a solid foundation of mathematical techniques and applications, extensive references to the relevant literature, and numerous avenues for further theoretical study. All the material from the first edition has been updated to reflect the most recent developments in the field, and a new chapter on switching systems has been added. Each chapter contains examples, case studies, and exercises to allow for a better understanding of theoretical concepts by practical application. The mathematical language is kept to the minimum level necessary for the adequate for...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengtong Di
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the results of the test among the joint roughness coefficient (JRC of rock fracture, mechanical aperture, and hydraulic aperture proposed by Barton, this paper deduces and proposes a permeability coefficient formula of single fracture stress-seepage coupling considering microroughness by the introduction of effect variables considering the microparticle size and structural morphology of facture surface. Quasi-sandstone fracture of different particle size is made by the laboratory test, and the respective modification is made on the coupled shear-seepage test system of JAW-600 rock. Under this condition, the laboratory test of stress-seepage coupling of fracture of different particle size is carried out. The test results show that, for the different particle-sized fracture surface of the same JRC, the permeability coefficient is different, which means the smaller particle size, the smaller permeability coefficient, and the larger particle size, the larger permeability coefficient; with the increase of cranny hydraulic pressure, the permeability coefficient increases exponentially, and under the same cranny hydraulic pressure, there is relation of power function between the permeability coefficient and normal stress. Meanwhile, according to the theoretical formula, the microroughness coefficient of the fractures with different particle size is obtained by the calculation, and its accuracy and validity are verified by experiments. The theoretical verification values are in good agreement with the measured values.
Saber, Ismail; Bartnik, Andrzej; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Wachulak, Przemysław; Jarocki, Roman; Fiedorowicz, Henryk
2017-03-01
Experimental measurements and numerical modeling of emission spectra in photoionized plasma in the ultraviolet and visible light (UV/Vis) range for noble gases have been investigated. The photoionized plasmas were created using laser-produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The source was based on a gas puff target; irradiated with 10ns/10J/10Hz Nd:YAG laser. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The laser pulses were focused on a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Irradiation of gases resulted in a formation of low temperature photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the UV/Vis spectral range. Atomic photoionized plasmas produced this way consisted of atomic and ionic with various ionization states. The most dominated observed spectral lines originated from radiative transitions in singly charged ions. To assist in a theoretical interpretation of the measured spectra, an atomic code based on Cowan's programs and a collisional-radiative PrismSPECT code have been used to calculate the theoretical spectra. A comparison of the calculated spectral lines with experimentally obtained results is presented. Electron temperature in plasma is estimated using the Boltzmann plot method, by an assumption that a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition in the plasma is validated in the first few ionization states. A brief discussion for the measured and computed spectra is given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurian, Ion Mihai; Angelescu, T.; Lazanu, I.; Mihul, A.; Malace, S.; Haiduc, M.; Biasini, Maurizio; Santinelli, R.; Pioppi, M.
2002-01-01
The conservation of lepton number separately for each generation has no strong theoretical basis. LEP experiments have investigated the channels in the Z mass region and obtained a limit of about 95% confidence level. First results have been published by L3 Collaboration in 1993. New data at energies between 190 and 210 GeV have been obtained. These data have been analysed in order to search for events violating lepton flavour number in this energy range. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raicevic, S.; Wright, J.V.; Veljkovic, V.; Conca, J.L.
2006-01-01
Addition of an amendment or reagent to soil/sediment is a technique that can decrease mobility and reduce bioavailability of uranium (U) and other heavy metals in the contaminated site. According to data from literature and results obtained in field studies, the general mineral class of apatites was selected as a most promising amendment for in situ immobilization/remediation of U. In this work we presented theoretical assessment of stability of U(VI) in four apatite systems (hydroxyapatite (HAP), North Carolina Apatite (NCA), Lisina Apatite (LA), and Apatite II) in order to determine an optimal apatite soil amendment which could be used for in situ remediation of uranium. In this analysis we used a theoretical criterion which is based on calculation of the ion-ion interaction potential, representing the main term of the cohesive energy of the matrix/pollutant system. The presented results of this analysis indicate (i) that the mechanism of immobilization of U by natural apatites depends on their chemical composition and (ii) that all analyzed apatites represent, from the point of view of stability, promising materials which could be used in field remediation of U-contaminated sites
Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xiaochao; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Caimei; Han, Peide
2016-05-01
A theoretical investigation on the esterification mechanism of free fatty acid (FFA) in waste cooking oils (WCOs) has been carried out using DMol(3) module based on the density functional theory (DFT). Three potential pathways of FFA esterification reaction are designed to achieve the formation of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), and calculated results show that the energy barrier can be efficiently reduced from 88.597kcal/mol to 15.318kcal/mol by acid catalyst. The molar enthalpy changes (ΔrHm°) of designed pathways are negative, indicating that FFA esterification reaction is an exothermic process. The obtained favorable energy pathway is: H(+) firstly activates FFA, then the intermediate combines with methanol to form a tetrahedral structure, and finally, producing FAME after removing a water molecule. The rate-determining step is the combination of the activated FFA with methanol, and the activation energy is about 11.513kcal/mol at 298.15K. Our results should provide basic and reliable theoretical data for further understanding the elimination mechanism of FFA over acid catalyst in the conversion of WCOs to biodiesel products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Identification of Anisotropic Criteria for Stratified Soil Based on Triaxial Tests Results
Tankiewicz, Matylda; Kawa, Marek
2017-09-01
The paper presents the identification methodology of anisotropic criteria based on triaxial test results. The considered material is varved clay - a sedimentary soil occurring in central Poland which is characterized by the so-called "layered microstructure". The strength examination outcomes were identified by standard triaxial tests. The results include the estimated peak strength obtained for a wide range of orientations and confining pressures. Two models were chosen as potentially adequate for the description of the tested material, namely Pariseau and its conjunction with the Jaeger weakness plane. Material constants were obtained by fitting the model to the experimental results. The identification procedure is based on the least squares method. The optimal values of parameters are searched for between specified bounds by sequentially decreasing the distance between points and reducing the length of the searched range. For both considered models the optimal parameters have been obtained. The comparison of theoretical and experimental results as well as the assessment of the suitability of selected criteria for the specified range of confining pressures are presented.
Hiremath, Sudhir M.; Hiremath, C. S.; Khemalapure, S. S.; Patil, N. R.
2018-05-01
This paper reports the experimental and theoretical study on the structure and vibrations of 2-Methylphenyl boronic acid (2MPBA). The different spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman (4000-50 cm-1) of the title molecule in the solid phase were recorded. The geometry of the molecule was fully optimized using density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d, p) basis set calculations. The vibrational wavenumbers were also corrected with scale factor to take better results for the calculated data. Vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes obtained from VEDA 4 program. The calculated wavenumbers showed the best agreement with the experimental results. Whereas, it is observed that, the theoretical frequencies are more than the experimental one for O-H stretching vibration modes of the title molecule.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, W.L.; Poon, S.J.; Duwez, P.
1977-11-01
Results of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction, and crystallization studies on amorphous (Mo/sub 1-x/Ru/sub x/) 80 P 20 alloys obtained by liquid quenching are presented and discussed. The alloys are all found to be superconducting with transition temperatures ranging from approximately 3 0 K to approximately 9 0 K. The variation of T/sub c/ with alloy composition is compared to that obtained by Collver and Hammond for vapor quenched transition metal films. Results of magnetic susceptibility measurements are used to estimate the variation of the electronic density of states at the Fermi level, N(0), from the Pauli paramagnetic contribution. The relationship between the variation of T/sub c/ and N(0) is discussed in terms of the microscope theory of superconductivity. Finally, results of measurements of the upper critical field H/sub c2/, and the normal state electronic transport properties are presented and compared with recent theoretical models for amorphous superconductors
Theoretical and experimental studies on transient forced convection heat transfer of helium gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Qiusheng; Fukuda, Katsuya; Shibahara, Makoto
2008-01-01
Forced convection transient heat transfer for helium gas at various periods of exponential increase of heat input to a horizontal cylinder and a plate (ribbon) one was experimentally and theoretically studied. In the experimental studies, the authors measured heat flux, surface temperature, and transient heat transfer coefficients for forced convection flow of helium gas over a horizontal cylinder and a plate (ribbon) one under wide experimental conditions. Empirical correlations for quasi-steady-state heat transfer and transient heat transfer were obtained based on the experimental data. In the theoretical study, transient heat transfer was numerically solved based on a turbulent flow model. The values of numerical solution for surface temperature and heat flux were compared and discussed with authors' experimental data. (author)
Analysis of results obtained from field tracing test under natural rain condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukai, M.; Kamiyama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Wang Zhiming; Zhao Yingjie; Li Zhengtang
1993-01-01
As one of the tests arranged by the cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI, field tracing tests using 3 H, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs were conducted in pits at the CIRP's field test site located on a loess tableland under natural rain condition. Precipitation amount and evaporation rate were measured to study complicated spatial-temporal behavior of soil water movement under that condition. The evaporation rate was obtained through an analysis on the measured data by a combined method of heat balance and eddy correlation. Numerical model, that is based on piston flow assumption of soil water movement, was developed and applied to determine the behavior of the soil water movement in the pits. Using the determined water movement, 3 H migration was evaluated by numerical simulation. Change of 3 H distribution as a function of elapsed time as well explained by careful evaluation of the soil water movement that carried out before the analysis. (5 figs.)
A theoretical study on 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(pyridin-2-Yl) prop-2-en-1-one
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Öner, Nazmiye, E-mail: fizikcinaz@gmail.com; Tamer, Ömer, E-mail: omertamer@sakarya.edu.tr; Avci, Davut, E-mail: davcir@sakarya.edu.tr; Atalay, Yusuf, E-mail: yatalay@sakarya.edu.tr [Sakarya University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 54187, Sakarya (Turkey)
2016-03-25
This study reports the geometric parameters, vibration frequencies, {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR chemical shifts of 3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-1-(pyridin-2-yl) prop-2-en-1-one (MPP) molecule calculated by B3LYP level of density functional theory (DFT) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR chemical shifts were calculated within GIAO approach which is one of the most common approaches. Additionally, 3D molecular surfaces such as molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and electrostatic potential (ESP), were simulated by the same level. As a result, obtained theoretical results were found to be consistent with experimental ones. All of calculations were carried out Gaussian 09 package program.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demichev, A.; Kryukov, A.; Rodionov, A.
2002-01-01
We propose an XML-based standard for formulation of field theoretical models. The goal of creation of such a standard is to provide a way for an unambiguous exchange and cross-checking of results of computer calculations in high energy physics. At the moment, the suggested standard implies that models under consideration are of the SM or MSSM type (i.e., they are just SM or MSSM, their submodels, smooth modifications or straightforward generalizations). (author)
On the relation of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kober, Martin
2010-01-01
The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.
Theoretical studies of flash x-ray diagnostics for fuel motion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halbleib, J.A. Sr.; Phillips, A.R.
1975-09-01
The results of preliminary theoretical studies concerning the possible employment of short-pulse, high-current field emission diodes as sources for the flash x-ray diagnostics of fuel-pin motion are reported. The predicted thick-target photon environments are obtained from state-of-the-art coupled electron/photon transport models. Through qualitative figures of merit these environments are used to study the importance of source current and voltage. For a selected experimental configuration a comparison is made between the absolute flash x-ray imaging signals predicted for these environments and Monte Carlo/analytic calculations of absolute fission-gamma backgrounds. These preliminary data suggest that field emission sources operating at voltages in the 1-to 5-MeV range and at currents of the order of 100-kA or greater may be adequate diagnostic sources for test-pin configurations as complex as a full LMFBR subassembly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Mu-Neng; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Shao-Yi [Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China). School of Physical Electronics
2017-07-01
The local distortions and the spin Hamiltonian parameters g factors g {sub parallel}, g {sub perpendicular} {sub to} and the hyperfine structure constants A {sub parallel} and A {sub perpendicular} {sub to} for isolated vanadyl ions VO{sup 2+} doped in SiO{sub 2} glass at 700 C are theoretically investigated from the perturbation formulas of these parameters for a 3d{sup 1} ion in tetragonally compressed octahedra. In these formulas, the relationships between local structure of VO{sup 2+} ions center and the tetragonal crystal field parameters are established. As a result, the distortion of the ligand octahedron is attributed to the strong axial crystal-fields associated with the short V{sup 4+}-O{sup 2-} bond due to the strong V=O bonding in the silica matrix. The theoretical spin Hamiltonian parameters obtained in this work show reasonable agreement with the experimental data.
Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of a Mechanical Lever System Driven by a DC Motor
Nana, B.; Fautso Kuiate, G.; Yamgoué, S. B.
This paper presents theoretical and experimental results on the investigation of the dynamics of a nonlinear electromechanical system made of a lever arm actuated by a DC motor and controlled through a repulsive magnetic force. We use the method of harmonic balance to derive oscillatory solutions. Theoretical tools such as, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, phase portraits, are used to unveil the rich nonlinear behavior of the system including chaos and hysteresis. The experimental results are in close accordance with the theoretical predictions.
Evolution of Theoretical Perspectives in My Research
Otero, Valerie K.
2009-11-01
Over the past 10 years I have been using socio-cultural theoretical perspectives to understand how people learn physics in a highly interactive, inquiry-based physics course such as Physics and Everyday Thinking [1]. As a result of using various perspectives (e.g. Distributed Cognition and Vygotsky's Theory of Concept Formation), my understanding of how these perspectives can be useful for investigating students' learning processes has changed. In this paper, I illustrate changes in my thinking about the role of socio-cultural perspectives in understanding physics learning and describe elements of my thinking that have remained fairly stable. Finally, I will discuss pitfalls in the use of certain perspectives and discuss areas that need attention in theoretical development for PER.
The theoretical tensile strength of fcc crystals predicted from shear strength calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerny, M; Pokluda, J
2009-01-01
This work presents a simple way of estimating uniaxial tensile strength on the basis of theoretical shear strength calculations, taking into account its dependence on a superimposed normal stress. The presented procedure enables us to avoid complicated and time-consuming analyses of elastic stability of crystals under tensile loading. The atomistic simulations of coupled shear and tensile deformations in cubic crystals are performed using first principles computational code based on pseudo-potentials and the plane wave basis set. Six fcc crystals are subjected to shear deformations in convenient slip systems and a special relaxation procedure controls the stress tensor. The obtained dependence of the ideal shear strength on the normal tensile stress seems to be almost linearly decreasing for all investigated crystals. Taking these results into account, the uniaxial tensile strength values in three crystallographic directions were evaluated by assuming a collapse of the weakest shear system. Calculated strengths for and loading were found to be mostly lower than previously calculated stresses related to tensile instability but rather close to those obtained by means of the shear instability analysis. On the other hand, the strengths for loading almost match the stresses related to tensile instability.
Katariya, Santosh B.; Patil, Dinesh; Rhyman, Lydia; Alswaidan, Ibrahim A.; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Sekar, Nagaiyan
2017-12-01
The static first and second hyperpolarizability and their related properties were calculated for triphenylamine-based "push-pull" dyes using the B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and BHHLYP functionals in conjunction with the 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The electronic coupling for the electron transfer reaction of the dyes were calculated with the generalized Mulliken-Hush method. The results obtained were correlated with the polarizability parameter αCT , first hyperpolarizability parameter βCT, and the solvatochromic descriptor of 〈 γ〉 SD obtained by the solvatochromic method. The dyes studied show a high total first order hyperpolarizability (70-238 times) and second order hyperpolarizability (412-778 times) compared to urea. Among the three functionals, the CAM-B3LYP and BHHLYP functionals show hyperpolarizability values closer to experimental values. Experimental absorption and emission wavelengths measured for all the synthesized dyes are in good agreement with those predicted using the time-dependent density functional theory. The theoretical examination on non-linear optical properties was performed on the key parameters of polarizability and hyperpolarizability. A remarkable increase in non-linear optical response is observed on insertion of benzothiazole unit compared to benzimidazole unit.
An experimental and theoretical investigation of creep buckling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohya, H.
1977-01-01
The purpose of the present paper is to investigate creep buckling phenomena and the methods of analysis. Creep buckling experiments were performed on aluminum alloy 2024-T4 cylindrical shells having radius to thickness ratios of 16, 25, 50 and 80, in single, double and triple step axial compression at 250 0 C. It was observed that buckling occurred at one of the edges and the buckling mode depended on the radius to thickness ratio and also on the applied stress level. Thicker cylinders buckled in axisymmetric mode. Thinner ones under higher applied stress levels buckled in the asymmetric mode, whereas they under lower applied stress levels buckled in the axisymmetric mode. Creep buckling times were obtained from end shortening record of the cylinders. Experimental results were compared with theoretical values obtained by the following two methods. One is a simplified method to estimate buckling times, proposed by Gerard et al., Papirno et al. and others. The method is based on the fact that the creep buckling solutions are analogous to those of plastic buckling under a certain assumption. It was found that the bukling times could be reasonably estimated by this simplified method. The other is a finite element computer program for axisymmetric thin shells. This program is based on the incremental theory and can treat thermoelastoplastic creep analysis of axisymmetric thin shells with large deflection. Creep deformation behavior of cylindrical shells under axial compression and buckling times were calculated by the program and the effects of plasticity on buckling times were also investigated
Theoretical Study of Triatomic Systems Involving Helium Atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suno, H.; Hiyama, E.; Kamimura, M.
2013-01-01
The triatomic 4 He system and its isotopic species 4 He 2 3 He are theoretically investigated. By adopting the best empirical helium interaction potentials, we calculate the bound state energy levels as well as the rates for the three-body recombination processes: 4 He + 4 He + 4 He → 4 He 2 + 4 He and 4 He + 4 He + 3 He → 4 He 2 + 3 He. We consider not only zero total angular momentum J = 0 states, but also J > 0 states. We also extend our study to mixed helium-alkali triatomic systems, that is 4 He 2 X with X = 7 Li, 23 Na, 39 K, 85 Rb, and 133 Cs. The energy levels of all the J ≥ 0 bound states for these species are calculated as well as the rates for three-body recombination processes such as 4 He + 4 He + 7 Li → 4 He 2 + 7 Li and 4 He + 4 He + 7 Li → 4 He 7 Li + 4 He. In our calculations, the adiabatic hyperspherical representation is employed but we also obtain preliminary results using the Gaussian expansion method. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mantsinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics
1999-06-01
Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in
Palmer, Zsuzsanna Bacsa
2013-01-01
The effects of globalization on communication products and processes have resulted in document features and interactional practices that are sometimes difficult to describe within current theoretical frameworks of inter/transcultural technical communication. Although it has been recognized in our field that the old theoretical frameworks and…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, V.L.B.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Cunha, M.S.
2008-01-01
Instrumental parameters need to be evaluated for obtaining acceptable analytical results for a specific instrument. The performance of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer can be verified for wavelengths and absorbances with appropriate materials (solutions of different concentrations of K 2 CrO 4 , for example). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the results of the procedures to control the quality of the measurements carried out in the laboratory in the last four years. The samples were analyzed in the spectrophotometer and control graphics were obtained for K 2 CrO 4 and Fe 3+ absorbance values. The variation in the results obtained for the stability of the spectrophotometer and for the control of its calibration did not exceed 2%. (author)
Theoretical framework of community education improvement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaúl Brizuela Castillo
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The paper explains the connection between the approach selected for the analysis and development of community education and the contradictions manifested in its theoretical and practical comprehension. As a result, a comprehensive model for community education, describing the theoretical and methodological framework to improve community education, is devised. This framework is based on a conscious organizing of educative influences applied to the regular task of the community under the coordinate action of social institutions and organization that promote the transformational action of the neighborhood assuming a protagonist role in the improvement of the quality of live and morals related to the socialism updating process. The comprehensive model was proved experimentally at District 59 of San Miguel town; the transformation of the community was scientifically registered together with the information gather by means of observation and interviewing. The findings proved the pertinence and feasibility of the proposed model.
Theoretical perspectives for the Environmental Education in high school. Theory and practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liliana Haydé Gutiérrez Sabogal
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This article exposes the background and conclusions of an Environmental Education purpose —EE— supported by theoretical models able to frame processes of teaching and learning applied to EE in the high school. All of this come from strict revision and analysis of complemented educational didactics, through the professional teaching experience. To reveal this conceptual framework, the activities are posed and developed within the Environmental School Project —ESP— of the District Education Institute —DEI— Ignacio Pescador as a mode to put into practice the analyzed theory. Thus, the results obtained validate the referential framework proposed to produce knowledge about the instructive theory — which is aimed to professional teachers who will be added to the teaching process of EE into the high school institutes— and the process of knowledge creation in the student body.
Aero thermal test results obtained on the n. C 5 EL 4 Cluster in the atmospheric pressure cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gasc, B.
1964-01-01
In the framework of thermal studies on the EL-4 cluster, the full-scale tests at atmospheric pressure are designed to permit measurement of local values of the wall temperature, of the velocity and of the temperature in the fluid. The experimental results, obtained with the help of an original measuring apparatus, make it possible to follow the changes in these values along the cluster and to predict in much detail the in-pile thermal behaviour. In particular it is shown that changes in the wall temperature along the cluster are greatly influenced by disruption of the flow caused by grids and supports. (author) [fr
Review of recent irradiation-creep results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coghlan, W.A.
1982-05-01
Materials deform faster under stress in the presence of irradiation by a process known as irradiation creep. This phenomenon is important to reactor design and has been the subject of a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations. The purpose of this work is to review the recent experimental results to obtain a summary of these results and to determine those research areas that require additional information. The investigations have been classified into four subgroups based on the different experimental methods used. These four are: (1) irradiation creep using stress relaxation methods, (2) creep measurements using pressurized tubes, (3) irradiation creep from constant applied load, and (4) irradiation creep experiments using accelerated particles. The similarity and the differences of the results from these methods are discussed and a summary of important results and suggested areas for research is presented. In brief, the important results relate to the dependence of creep on swelling, temperature, stress state and alloying additions. In each of these areas new results have been presented and new questions have arisen which require further research to answer. 65 references
Environmental sustainability in hotels, theoretical and methodological contribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabricia Silva da Rosa
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The environmental sustainability is a multidisciplinary subject and its scope has attracted the attention of researchers from various fields of knowledge. In this perspective, there is the environmental management in the hotel industry, by two aspects, first the economic importance of the hotels that are a key element of the tourism sector, and secondly, the activity generates environmental impacts that need to be managed. Thus, it is understood that it is to investigate the subject is treated in academia. In this sense, the objective of this research, exploratory and descriptive in nature, consists of mapping the theme of sustainability management in hotels, according to the delimitations posed by researchers. To accomplish this purpose, we used the Knowledge Development Process process - Constructivist (ProKnow-C. At the end of the survey, were identified 13 articles published in international journals aligned with the boundaries placed by the researchers. When installing the Bibliographical Portfolio (PB is evidenced by: (i aspects of relevance and adherence to the theme of the articles; (Ii proposals and results obtained in the research; (Iii theoretical and methodological contribution of the research published in the PB items. The results show that the topic is relevant and current, which lacks structured process to evaluate the environmental management in order to support management decisions.
Theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of a substituted nickel phthalocyanine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaur, Prabhjot, E-mail: prabhphysics@gmail.com; Sachdeva, Ritika [Department of Physics, Panjab University Chandigarh-160014, Chandigarh (India); Singh, Sukhwinder [Department of Physics, Govt. College for Girls, Ludhiana-141008, Ludhiana (India)
2016-05-23
The optimized geometry and electronic structure of an organic compound nickel phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt have been investigated using density functional theory. We have also optimized the structure of nickel phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt in dimethyl sulfoxide to study effects of solvent on the electronic structure and transitions. Experimentally, the electronic transitions have been studied using UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. It is observed that the electronic transitions obtained from the theoretical studies generally agree with the experiment.
Li, Baihong; Dong, Ruifang; Zhou, Conghua; Xiang, Xiao; Li, Yongfang; Zhang, Shougang
2018-05-01
Selective two-photon microscopy and high-precision nonlinear spectroscopy rely on efficient spectral compression at the desired frequency. Previously, a Fresnel-inspired binary phase shaping (FIBPS) method was theoretically proposed for spectral compression of two-photon absorption and second-harmonic generation (SHG) with a square-chirped pulse. Here, we theoretically show that the FIBPS can introduce a negative quadratic frequency phase (negative chirp) by analogy with the spatial-domain phase function of Fresnel zone plate. Thus, the previous theoretical model can be extended to the case where the pulse can be transformed limited and in any symmetrical spectral shape. As an example, we experimentally demonstrate spectral compression in SHG by FIBPS for a Gaussian transform-limited pulse and show good agreement with the theory. Given the fundamental pulse bandwidth, a narrower SHG bandwidth with relatively high intensity can be obtained by simply increasing the number of binary phases. The experimental results also verify that our method is superior to that proposed in [Phys. Rev. A 46, 2749 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevA.46.2749]. This method will significantly facilitate the applications of selective two-photon microscopy and spectroscopy. Moreover, as it can introduce negative dispersion, hence it can also be generalized to other applications in the field of dispersion compensation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crenn, J.P.
1984-06-01
A theoretical study of modes in circular hollow over-dimensioned waveguides is developed; it shows the interest of dielectric or weakly conducting wall guide use. An optical model computing the transmitted power of gaussian beams through these guides, for different types of walls, is established. The formulas obtained allow to optimize the guide and to adapt the beam. Applied to the EH 11 mode this optical model leads to new results. Systematical measurements of gaussian beam propagation in over-dimensioned guides are realised; they are concerned with beam power transmission, polarization, its structure and its radiation at the guide exit in function of the different characteristics of the beam and the guide [fr
Bulk and interface dielectric functions: New results within the tight-binding approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elvira, V.D.; Duran, J.C.
1991-01-01
A tight-binding approach is used to analyze the dielectric behaviour of bulk semiconductors and semiconductor interfaces. This time interactions between second nearest neighbours are taken into account and several electrostatic models are proposed for the induced charge density around the atoms. The bulk dielectric function of different semiconductors (Si, Ge, GaAs and AlAs) are obtained and compared with other theoretical and experimental results. Finally, the energy band offset for GaAs-AlAs(1,0,0) interface is obtained and related to bulk properties of both semiconductors. The results presented in this paper show how the use of very simple but more realistic electrostatic models improve the analysis of the screening properties in semiconductors, giving a new support to the consistent tight-binding method for studying characteristics related to those properties. (Author)
Elementary Theoretical Forms for the Spatial Power Spectrum of Earth's Crustal Magnetic Field
Voorhies, C.
1998-01-01
The magnetic field produced by magnetization in Earth's crust and lithosphere can be distinguished from the field produced by electric currents in Earth's core because the spatial magnetic power spectrum of the crustal field differs from that of the core field. Theoretical forms for the spectrum of the crustal field are derived by treating each magnetic domain in the crust as the point source of a dipole field. The geologic null-hypothesis that such moments are uncorrelated is used to obtain the magnetic spectrum expected from a randomly magnetized, or unstructured, spherical crust of negligible thickness. This simplest spectral form is modified to allow for uniform crustal thickness, ellipsoidality, and the polarization of domains by an periodically reversing, geocentric axial dipole field from Earth's core. Such spectra are intended to describe the background crustal field. Magnetic anomalies due to correlated magnetization within coherent geologic structures may well be superimposed upon this background; yet representing each such anomaly with a single point dipole may lead to similar spectral forms. Results from attempts to fit these forms to observational spectra, determined via spherical harmonic analysis of MAGSAT data, are summarized in terms of amplitude, source depth, and misfit. Each theoretical spectrum reduces to a source factor multiplied by the usual exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n due to geometric attenuation with attitude above the source layer. The source factors always vary with n and are approximately proportional to n(exp 3) for degrees 12 through 120. The theoretical spectra are therefore not directly proportional to an exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n. There is no radius at which these spectra are flat, level, or otherwise independent of n.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scialdone, Onofrio; Guarisco, Chiara; Galia, Alessandro
2011-01-01
The electrochemical oxidation of organics in water performed in micro reactors on boron doped diamond (BDD) anode was investigated both theoretically and experimentally in order to find the influence of various operative parameters on the conversion and the current efficiency CE of the process. The electrochemical oxidation of formic acid (FA) was selected as a model case. High conversions for a single passage of the electrolytic solution inside the cell were obtained by operating with proper residence times and low distances between cathode and anode. The effect of initial concentration, flow rate and current density was investigated in detail. Theoretical predictions were in very good agreement with experimental results for both mass transfer control, oxidation reaction control and mixed kinetic regimes in spite of the fact that no adjustable parameters was used. Mass transfer process was successfully modelled by considering for simplicity a constant Sh number (e.g., a constant mass transfer coefficient k m ) for a process performed with no high values of the current intensity to minimize the effect of the gas bubbling on the flowdynamic pattern. For mixed kinetic regimes, two different modelling approaches were used. In the first one, the oxidation of organics at BDD was assumed to be mass transfer controlled and to occur with an intrinsic 100% CE when applied current density is higher than the limiting current density. In the second case, the CE of the process was modelled assuming that the competition between organic and water oxidation depends only on the electrodic material and on the nature and the concentration of the organic. In the latter case a better agreement between experimental data and theoretical predictions was observed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ulu, Melike; Ozer, Zehra Nur; Yavuz, Murat; Dogan, Mevlut; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Crowe, Albert
2014-01-01
Experimental and theoretical studies of electron-impact ionization of the 3p orbital of argon are reported. Good agreement is obtained with other benchmark experiments and state-of-the-art calculations.
Theoretical NMR spectroscopy of N-heterocyclic carbenes and their metal complexes
Falivene, Laura
2016-12-26
Recent theoretical analysis of the NMR properties of free N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) and Metal-NHC complexes has complemented experiments, allowing the establishment of structure/property relationships and the rationalization of otherwise surprising experimental results. In this review, the main conclusions from recent literature are discussed, with the aim to offer a vision of the potential of theoretical analyses of NMR properties.
Theoretical analysis of factors controlling the nonalternating CO/C(2)H(4) copolymerization.
Haras, Alicja; Michalak, Artur; Rieger, Bernhard; Ziegler, Tom
2005-06-22
A [P-O]Pd catalyst based on o-alkoxy derivatives of diphenylphosphinobenzene sulfonic acid (I) has recently been shown by Drent et al. to perform nonalternating CO/C(2)H(4) copolymerization with subsequent incorporation of ethylene units into the polyketone chain. The origin of the nonalternation is investigated in a theoretical study of I, where calculated activation barriers and reaction heats of all involved elementary steps are used to generate a complete kinetic model. The kinetic model is able to account for the observed productivity and degree of nonalternation as a function of temperature. Consistent with the energy changes obtained for the real catalyst model, the selectivity toward a nonalternating distribution of both comonomers appears to be mainly a result of a strong destabilization of the Pd-acyl complex.
A game-theoretic method for cross-layer stochastic resilient control design in CPS
Shen, Jiajun; Feng, Dongqin
2018-03-01
In this paper, the cross-layer security problem of cyber-physical system (CPS) is investigated from the game-theoretic perspective. Physical dynamics of plant is captured by stochastic differential game with cyber-physical influence being considered. The sufficient and necessary condition for the existence of state-feedback equilibrium strategies is given. The attack-defence cyber interactions are formulated by a Stackelberg game intertwined with stochastic differential game in physical layer. The condition such that the Stackelberg equilibrium being unique and the corresponding analytical solutions are both provided. An algorithm is proposed for obtaining hierarchical security strategy by solving coupled games, which ensures the operational normalcy and cyber security of CPS subject to uncertain disturbance and unexpected cyberattacks. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed algorithm.
Process for obtaining sintered conglomerates with a high density of rare earth oxides and actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasto, A.E.
1974-01-01
The invention concerns a method to produce agglomerates of actinide and rare earth oxides possessing a cubic-monoclinic transformation in order to obtain high densities close to the theoretical density, and the articles produced by the method. The process is based on the use of a rare earth or actinide oxide, in particular Eu 2 O 3 , with a cubic-monoclinic phase transformation, the oxide being sintered by hot compression at a temperature 50 deg C to 100 deg C above the transformation temperature. The sintered agglomerates obtained can have a purity of at least 99.9% and a density of practically 100%. These agglomerates are suitable in particular for the formation of nuclear reactor control rods [fr
Theoretical investigations of quantum correlations in NMR multiple-pulse spin-locking experiments
Gerasev, S. A.; Fedorova, A. V.; Fel'dman, E. B.; Kuznetsova, E. I.
2018-04-01
Quantum correlations are investigated theoretically in a two-spin system with the dipole-dipole interactions in the NMR multiple-pulse spin-locking experiments. We consider two schemes of the multiple-pulse spin-locking. The first scheme consists of π /2-pulses only and the delays between the pulses can differ. The second scheme contains φ-pulses (0Quantum discord is obtained for the first scheme of the multiple-pulse spin-locking experiment at different temperatures.
Group theoretic reduction of Laplacian dynamical problems on fractal lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwalm, W.A.; Schwalm, M.K.; Giona, M.
1997-01-01
Discrete forms of the Schroedinger equation, the diffusion equation, the linearized Landau-Ginzburg equation, and discrete models for vibrations and spin dynamics belong to a class of Laplacian-based finite difference models. Real-space renormalization of such models on finitely ramified regular fractals is known to give exact recursion relations. It is shown that these recursions commute with Lie groups representing continuous symmetries of the discrete models. Each such symmetry reduces the order of the renormalization recursions by one, resulting in a system of recursions with one fewer variable. Group trajectories are obtained from inverse images of fixed and invariant sets of the recursions. A subset of the Laplacian finite difference models can be mapped by change of boundary conditions and time dependence to a diffusion problem with closed boundaries. In such cases conservation of mass simplifies the group flow and obtaining the groups becomes easier. To illustrate this, the renormalization recursions for Green functions on four standard examples are decoupled. The examples are (1) the linear chain, (2) an anisotropic version of Dhar close-quote s 3-simplex, similar to a model dealt with by Hood and Southern, (3) the fourfold coordinated Sierpiacute nski lattice of Rammal and of Domany et al., and (4) a form of the Vicsek lattice. Prospects for applying the group theoretic method to more general dynamical systems are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Theoretical model for plasma expansion generated by hypervelocity impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ju, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingming; Zhang, Dongjiang; Long, Renrong; Chen, Li; Huang, Fenglei; Gong, Zizheng
2014-01-01
The hypervelocity impact experiments of spherical LY12 aluminum projectile diameter of 6.4 mm on LY12 aluminum target thickness of 23 mm have been conducted using a two-stage light gas gun. The impact velocity of the projectile is 5.2, 5.7, and 6.3 km/s, respectively. The experimental results show that the plasma phase transition appears under the current experiment conditions, and the plasma expansion consists of accumulation, equilibrium, and attenuation. The plasma characteristic parameters decrease as the plasma expands outward and are proportional with the third power of the impact velocity, i.e., (T e , n e ) ∝ v p 3 . Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model on the plasma expansion is developed and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data
Theoretical model for plasma expansion generated by hypervelocity impact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ju, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingming, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn; Zhang, Dongjiang; Long, Renrong; Chen, Li; Huang, Fenglei [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Gong, Zizheng [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Reliability and Environment Engineering, Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering, Beijing 100094 (China)
2014-09-15
The hypervelocity impact experiments of spherical LY12 aluminum projectile diameter of 6.4 mm on LY12 aluminum target thickness of 23 mm have been conducted using a two-stage light gas gun. The impact velocity of the projectile is 5.2, 5.7, and 6.3 km/s, respectively. The experimental results show that the plasma phase transition appears under the current experiment conditions, and the plasma expansion consists of accumulation, equilibrium, and attenuation. The plasma characteristic parameters decrease as the plasma expands outward and are proportional with the third power of the impact velocity, i.e., (T{sub e}, n{sub e}) ∝ v{sub p}{sup 3}. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model on the plasma expansion is developed and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1985-01-01
The theoretical physics program in the Physics Division at ORNL involves research in both nuclear and atomic physics. In nuclear physics there is extensive activity in the fields of direct nuclear reactions with light- and heavy-ion projectiles, the structure of nuclei far from stability and at elevated temperatures, and the microscopic and macroscopic description of heavy-ion dynamics, including the behavior of nuclear molecules and supernuclei. New research efforts in relativistic nuclear collisions and in the study of quark-gluon plasma have continued to grow this year. The atomic theory program deals with a variety of ionization, multiple-vacancy production, and charge-exchange processes. Many of the problems are selected because of their relevance to the magnetic fusion energy program. In addition, there is a joint atomic-nuclear theory effort to study positron production during the collision of two high-Z numbers, i.e., U+U. A new Distinguished Scientist program, sponsored jointly by the University of Tennessee and ORNL, has been initiated. Among the first appointments is G.F. Bertsch in theoretical physics. As a result of this appointment, Bertsch and an associated group of four theorists split their time between UT and ORNL. In addition, the State of Tennessee has established a significant budget to support the visits of outstanding scientists to the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research at ORNL. This budget should permit a significant improvement in the visitor program at ORNL. Finally, the Laboratory awarded a Wigner post-doctoral Appointment to a theorist who will work in the theory group of the Physics Division
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Flemming; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Fraser, Callum G
2016-01-01
a homeostatic set point that follows a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This set point (or baseline in steady-state) should be estimated from a set of previous samples, but, in practice, decisions based on reference change value are often based on only two consecutive results. The original reference change value......-positive results. The aim of this study was to investigate false-positive results using five different published methods for calculation of reference change value. METHODS: The five reference change value methods were examined using normally and ln-normally distributed simulated data. RESULTS: One method performed...... best in approaching the theoretical false-positive percentages on normally distributed data and another method performed best on ln-normally distributed data. The commonly used reference change value method based on two results (without use of estimated set point) performed worst both on normally...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Zhou
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Rain–wind–induced galloping phenomenon often occurs on overhead transmission tower-lines system, just as icing galloping and vortex-excited vibration; this kind of instability oscillation can cause power-line breakage or tower failure. However, the existing theoretical models of rain–wind–induced galloping are mainly based on the hypothesis of the overhead power-lines with fixed ends, which is inconsistent with the actual operation situation. Therefore, this article thus presents a preliminary theoretical study and proposes a new theoretical model taking into account the effect of tower excitations on the in-plane galloping of the overhead power-line and on the motion of the upper rain-line. The theoretical model is solved by Galerkin method and verified by the comparison with the test data obtained in the available literature involved with the overhead power-lines with fixed towers or moving towers. It turns out that the tower excitations may intensify the in-plane galloping amplitude of the overhead power-line within a certain range of frequency ratio and enable better comprehension of rain–wind–induced galloping mechanism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E
2009-01-01
Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E, E-mail: R.E.Palmer@bham.ac.u [Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)
2009-11-25
Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.
Theoretical clarity is not “Manicheanism”
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjørland, Birger
2011-01-01
It is argued that in order to establish a new theoretical approach to information science it is necessary to express disagreement with some established views. The “social turn” in information science is not just exemplified in relation to the works of Marcia Bates but in relation to many different...... researchers in the field. Therefore it should not be taken personally, and the debate should focus on the substance. Marcia Bates has contributed considerably to information science. In spite of this some of her theoretical points of departure may be challenged. It is important to seek theoretical clarity...... and this may involve a degree of schematic confrontation that should not be confused with theoretical one-sidedness, “Manicheanism” or lack of respect....
Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lasrado, Lester Allan
Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...
The power of theoretical knowledge.
Alligood, Martha Raile
2011-10-01
Nursing theoretical knowledge has demonstrated powerful contributions to education, research, administration and professional practice for guiding nursing thought and action. That knowledge has shifted the primary focus of the nurse from nursing functions to the person. Theoretical views of the person raise new questions, create new approaches and instruments for nursing research, and expand nursing scholarship throughout the world.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Calabria, Jaqueline A. Almeida; Tello, Cledola Cassia O.; Candido, Francisco Donizete; Seles, Sandro Rogerio Novaes
2011-01-01
At CDTN R and D activities generate low-level radioactive wastes, among them the aqueous liquid ones, which need special attention due to their volumes. The usual treatment for these wastes is the volume reduction process using chemicals in order to change the radionuclides of the waste to an insoluble form. The resultant sludge is incorporated into cement in 200-liter drums using an in-line batch mixing system (CDTN Cementation Facility). The process parameters and solidified product quality are evaluated at the Cementation Laboratory (LABCIM), where tests are carried out to determine the viscosity, set time and density of the paste. In addition of the visual examination, compressive strength test and density are also established in the solidified product. In the cementation facility some pastes are also prepared for the immobilization of non-compactable waste, such as dump, scrap metal, wood, and other ones. This paper aims to present the study comparing the results of tests done in the pastes and products prepared in LABCIM and the ones obtained in CDTN's cementation facility, in order to check the efficiency of the cementation system. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Calabria, Jaqueline A. Almeida; Tello, Cledola Cassia O.; Candido, Francisco Donizete; Seles, Sandro Rogerio Novaes
2011-01-01
At CDTN R and D activities generate low-level radioactive wastes, among them the aqueous liquid ones, which need special attention due to their volumes. The usual treatment for these wastes is the volume reduction process using chemicals in order to change the radionuclides of the waste to an insoluble form. The resultant sludge is incorporated into cement in 200-liter drums using an in-line batch mixing system (CDTN Cementation Facility). The process parameters and solidified product quality are evaluated at the Cementation Laboratory (LABCIM), where tests are carried out to determine the viscosity, set time and density of the paste. In addition of the visual examination, compressive strength test and density are also established in the solidified product. In the cementation facility some pastes are also prepared for the immobilization of non-compactable waste, such as dump, scrap metal, wood, and other ones. This paper aims to present the study comparing the results of tests done in the pastes and products prepared in LABCIM and the ones obtained in CDTN's cementation facility, in order to check the efficiency of the cementation system. (author)
Digital Sound Encryption with Logistic Map and Number Theoretic Transform
Satria, Yudi; Gabe Rizky, P. H.; Suryadi, MT
2018-03-01
Digital sound security has limits on encrypting in Frequency Domain. Number Theoretic Transform based on field (GF 2521 – 1) improve and solve that problem. The algorithm for this sound encryption is based on combination of Chaos function and Number Theoretic Transform. The Chaos function that used in this paper is Logistic Map. The trials and the simulations are conducted by using 5 different digital sound files data tester in Wave File Extension Format and simulated at least 100 times each. The key stream resulted is random with verified by 15 NIST’s randomness test. The key space formed is very big which more than 10469. The processing speed of algorithm for encryption is slightly affected by Number Theoretic Transform.
Orlistat interaction with sibutramine and carnitine. A physicochemical and theoretical study
Nicolás-Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa Torres, Jaime; Cruz Borbolla, Julián; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René; Aceves-Hernández, Juan Manuel
2014-03-01
Chemical degradation of orlistat, (ORT) after melting and reaction of decomposition byproducts with sibutramine, SIB was studied. Interactions between the active pharmaceutical ingredients by using thermal analysis, TA, methods and other experimental techniques such as PXRD, IR and UV-vis spectroscopies were carried out to investigate chemical reactions between components. It was found that orlistat melts with decomposition and byproducts quickly affect sibutramine molecule and then reacting also with carnitine, CRN when the three active pharmaceutical ingredients (API's) are mixed. However ORT byproducts do not react when ORT is mixed only with carnitine. It was found that compounds containing chlorine atoms react easily with orlistat when the temperature increases up to its melting point. Some reaction mechanisms of orlistat decomposition are proposed, the fragments in the mechanisms were found in the corresponding mass spectra. Results obtained indicate that special studies should be carried out in the formulation stage before the final composition of a poly-pill could be established. Similar results are commonly found for compounds very prone to react in presence of water, light and/or temperature. In order to explain the reactivity of orlistat with sibutramine and carnitine, theoretical calculations were carried out and the results are in agreement with the experimental results.
An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewis, Allison, E-mail: lewis.allison10@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Smith, Ralph [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Figueroa, Victor [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)
2016-11-01
For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grigorenko, G.M.; Pomarin, Yu.M.; Orlovsky, V.Yu. [Natsional' na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Kiev (Ukraine). E.O. Paton Inst. of Electrical Welding
1999-07-01
The work was performed within the framework of the Ukrainian-French program of cooperation in the field of metal of high inclusion and was dedicated to joint fundamental investigation of thermodynamics and kinetics of nitrogen absorption by the Ni-20%Cr liquid alloy. The comparative investigations of kinetic absorption of nitrogen from the gas phase were performed by the method of levitation melting within the temperature range of 1600-1800 C in the atmosphere of pure nitrogen. Using the method of mathematical statistics and experimental Cp values at the different temperatures, the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant of nitrogen solution reaction in the Ni-20%Cr alloy was obtained (lgK{sub N}=1284/T-1.94). Theoretical and graphical analysis of the experimental data allowed to make the conclusion that the absorption nitrogen process is controlled by the general kinetic equation of the first degree. Using of the aforementioned results the mass transfer factors were calculated with the different temperature and were obtained their mathematical description ({beta}{sub N}{sup Ni-Cr}=-454/T+0.285). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carcreff, Hubert; Salmon, Laurent; Courtaux, Cedric
2014-01-01
Nuclear heating rate inside an MTR has to be known in order to design and to run irradiation experiments which have to fulfill target temperature constraints. This measurement is usually carried out by calorimetry. An innovative calorimetric system, CALMOS, has been studied and built in 2011 for the 70 MWth OSIRIS reactor operated by CEA. Thanks to a new calorimetric probe, associated to a specific displacement system, it provides measurements along the fissile height and above the core. Development of the calorimetric probe required manufacturing and irradiation of mock-ups in the ex-core area, where nuclear heating rate does not exceed 2 W.g -1 . The calorimeter working mode, the different measurement procedures, main modeling and ex-core experimental results have been already presented in previous papers. In this paper, we present in-core results obtained from 2011 to 2013 with the final device. For the first time, this new experimental measurement system was operated in several experimental locations, with nominal in-core thermal hydraulic conditions, nominal neutron flux and nuclear heating rate up to 6 W.g -1 (in graphite). After a brief presentation of the displacement system specificities, first nuclear heating distributions are presented and discussed. The Finite Element model of the calorimeter was upgraded in order to match calculated temperatures with measured ones. This 'validated' model allowed to estimate a Kc factor which tends to correct small nonlinearities when heating rate is calculated from the 'calibration method'. A comparison is made between nuclear heating rates determined from 'calibration' and 'zero methods'. In addition, an evaluation of the global uncertainty associated to the measurements is detailed. Finally, a comparison is made with available measurements obtained from previous calorimeters. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carcreff, Hubert; Salmon, Laurent; Courtaux, Cedric
2013-06-01
Nuclear heating rate inside an MTR has to be known in order to design and to run irradiation experiments which have to fulfill target temperature constraints. This measurement is usually carried out by calorimetry [1, 2]. An innovative calorimetric system, CALMOS, has been studied and built in 2011 for the 70 MWth OSIRIS reactor operated by CEA. Thanks to a new calorimetric probe, associated to a specific displacement system, it provides measurements along the fissile height and above the core. The development of the calorimetric probe required the manufacturing and the irradiation of mock-ups in the ex-core area, where nuclear heating rate does not exceed 2 W.g -1 . The calorimeter working mode, the different measurement procedures allowed with such a new probe and main modeling and experimental results have been already presented [3, 4]. In this paper, we present the first results obtained during several measurement campaigns carried out in 2012 and 2013 inside the OSIRIS core with the final device. For the first time, this new experimental measurement system was operated in nominal in-core thermo hydraulic conditions with nominal neutron and gamma fluxes (up to 6 W.g -1 ) in several experimental locations. After a brief presentation of the displacement system specificities, first nuclear heating distributions are presented and discussed. Experimental data were also used to upgrade the Finite Element model of the calorimeter in order to match measured temperatures with calculated ones. This model allowed to estimate a Kc correction factor which takes into account small nonlinearities when the heating rate is deduced from the calibration method. A comparison is made between nuclear heating rates determined from the probe calibration and from the zero method. In addition, an evaluation of the global uncertainty associated to the measurements is detailed. Finally, a global comparison is made with available measurements obtained from previous calorimeters. (authors)