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December 13, 2018 

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J CURVE: An interesting relationship that exists between the exchange rate for a nation's currency and its balance of trade. In principle, the drop in a nation's exchange rate, or price of currency, makes the currency less expensive to "buy." With "cheaper" currency the price of domestic production is less and the price of foreign stuff is more, causing an increase in exports to other countries and drop in imports coming in from foreign producers. The economy thus moves in the direction away from a trade deficit and toward a trade surplus. However, the first few months after a drop in the exchange rate the balance of trade goes in the other direction, with any existing trade deficit increasing or any trade surplus shrinking. This occurs because the quantities imported and exported don't change in the short run, but the prices do. Because more is paid for the same amount of imported goods and receive less for the same amount of exports, total spending on imports increases, total revenue received from exports declines, and the movement is in the trade deficit direction. Once those quantities start adjusting in the long run, then we see a movement in the direction of a trade surplus.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Intro
  • Definition
  • A Few Examples
  • Market Control
  • Competition
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Four Types
  • A Continuum
  • Perfect Competition
  • Monopoly
  • Monopolistic Competition
  • Oligopoly
  • Other Structurres
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Getting Control
  • Profit Motivation
  • Entry Barriers
  • Product Differentiation
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Using Control
  • Takes And Makers
  • Demand Curves
  • Practices
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Government
  • Efficiency
  • Regulation
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Market Structures

    Our investigation into market structures lays the foundation for a closer examination of monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly. This lesson takes a look at how markets are structured based on their competitiveness, the degree of market control held by firms, the acquisition of this market control, and the use market control.

    • The first unit of this lesson, Competition And Control, begins this lesson with a look at competition and market control.
    • In the second unit, Four Types, we examine the four basic types of market structures -- perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly.
    • The third unit, Getting Control, then looks at two key ways that firms are able to acquire or increase their market control -- product differentiation and entry barriers.
    • In the fourth unit, Using Control, we investigate what firms do when they have market control.
    • The fifth and final unit, Government, then closes this lesson by considering the role government plays in regulating market control.

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    ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE

    The general ability to produce more goods or services using fewer resources. A person or country has an absolute advantage in production largely due to superior technology or greater technical efficiency. A related, but contrasting concept is comparative advantage. Both terms are perhaps most important to the study of international trade, but also provide insight into other exchanges.

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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway looking to buy either decorative picture frames or storage boxes for your income tax returns. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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