March 17, 2018 

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PAR VALUE: The stated, or face, value of a legal claim or financial asset. For debt securities, such as corporate bonds or U. S. Treasury securities, this is amount to be repaid at the time of maturity. For equity securities, that is, corporate stocks, this is the initial value set up at the time it is issued. Par value, also called face value, is not necessarily, and often is not, equal to the current market price of the asset. A $10,000 U.S. Treasury note, for example, has a par value of $10,000, but might have a current market price of $9,950. The difference between par value and current price contributes to the yield or return on such assets. An asset is selling at a discount if the current price is less than the par value and is selling at a premium if the current price is more than the par value.

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Lesson 18: Banking | Unit 3: Reserve Banking Page: 15 of 24

Topic: Goldsmith Loans <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

The story continues when Elizabeth the Innkeeper needs to expand her business and ask Fred for a loan.

The story:

  • Elizabeth's business is booming, but she is temporarily short of money, short of gold.
  • She asks Fred for a loan of gold that belongs to Bill the Knight that Fred keeps on his safe.
  • Elizabeth is willing to pay Fred a sizable fee for taking the risk of making this loan.
  • Fred makes the loan.
  • Elizabeth expands her inn, she repays the loan on schedule with interest with profit from business.
  • Bill collects his gold upon returning.
  • Other local merchants soon seek interest lending services from Fred.

Fred has discovered the lending function of modern banks.

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The total real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers are willing and able to undertake at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand, usually abbreviated AD, is an inverse relation between price level and aggregate expenditures. This is one half of the AS-AD (aggregate market) analysis. The other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand consists of four aggregate expenditures--consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports--made by the four macroeconomic sectors--household, business, government, and foreign.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time waiting for visits from door-to-door solicitors wanting to buy either a weathervane with a horse on top or a case of blank recordable DVDs. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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The 22.6% decline in stock prices on October 19, 1987 was larger than the infamous 12.8% decline on October 29, 1929.
"If football taught me anything about business, it is that you win the game one play at a time."

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