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HIERARCHY OF NEEDS: Developed by Abraham Maslow, the notion that people are motivated to satisfy basic physiological needs (food, shelter, etc.) before moving on to satisfying higher psychological needs (security, companionship, etc.). These alternative needs are layered in a hierarchial pattern with physiological needs on the bottom, safety needs on the second layer, belonging needs on the third layer, esteem needs on the fourth layer, and self-actualization needs at the top. This hierarchy of needs has been used to help explain the progress of human societies from agrarian to manufacturing to service to information.

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Lesson 1: Economic Basics | Unit 5: Policies Page: 15 of 18

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Markets do a reasonable, but not make perfect, job of pursuing the five economic goals.

Market Imperfections:

  • Instability: Markets can cause instability in the macroeconomy, preventing growth, stability, and full employment.
  • Inefficiency: Market imperfections can prevent the economy from efficiently using resources.
  • Equity: The market generated distribution of income and wealth might not be desired by society.

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DECREASING RETURNS TO SCALE

A given proportional change in all resources in the long run results in a proportional smaller change in production. Decreasing returns to scale exists if a firm increases ALL resources--labor, capital, and other inputs--by a given proportion (say 10 percent) and output increases by less than this proportion (that is, less than 10 percent). This is one of three returns to scale. The other two are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale seeking to buy either handcrafted decorations to hang on your walls or throw pillows for your bed. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from former employers.
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Parker Brothers, the folks who produce the Monopoly board game, prints more Monopoly money each year than real currency printed by the U.S. government.
"Now is the only time there is. Make your now wow, your minutes miracles, and your days pay. Your life will have been magnificently lived and invested, and when you die you will have made a difference."

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