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LEVERAGE: The use of credit or loans to enhance speculation in the financial markets. Suppose, for example, that you take the $1,000 in your bank account to your stock broker and purchase $1,000 worth of stocks, bonds, or whatever. A leveraged purchase would let you use your $1,000 to buy, let's say, $10,000 worth of stocks or bonds. The remaining $9,000 of the purchase price comes from a loan.

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Lesson 2: Economic Science | Unit 2: Theory Page: 6 of 20

Topic: Abstraction <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Economic theories are abstractions of the real world.

Three ways to abstract:
  • Words. The earliest human method of abstraction was to represent objects with words. Words also represent ideas. But words can have different meanings.
  • Graphs. Pictures, especially graphical pictures. Many economic theories are abstractly represented with graphs. A picture or graph can be less confusing that words.
  • Equations. Graphs are two-dimensional pictures of mathematical equations. Economic theories are often abstractly represented by equations. Equations can represent relationships between three or more things, like that for X, Y and Z:
Y = 3 + 2X - 4Z

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INTERCEPT, INVESTMENT LINE

The intercept of the investment line indicates autonomous investment, investment that does not depend on the level of income or production. This can be thought of as investment that the business sector undertakes regardless of the state of the economy. Autonomous investment is affected by the investment expenditures determinants, which cause a change in the intercept and a shift of the investment line.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through mail order catalogs seeking to buy either a wall poster commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki or decorative garden figurines. Be on the lookout for cardboard boxes.
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General Electric is the only stock from the original 1896 Dow Jones Industrial Average remaining in the current index.
"The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet."

-- Aristotle, philosopher

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International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
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