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INDUCED CHANGE: A change in aggregate expenditures, especially consumption expenditures, that is "induced" or triggered by a change in national income or gross domestic product. Induced changes form the foundation for the multiplier effect, which is set in motion by autonomous changes in aggregate expenditures. In terms of Keynesian economics and the Keynesian cross diagram, induced changes are seen as a movement along in the aggregate expenditures line. This two step process, autonomous changes causing induced changes, is key to explaining business cycle fluctuations.

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Lesson 2: Economic Science | Unit 2: Theory Page: 6 of 20

Topic: Abstraction <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Economic theories are abstractions of the real world.

Three ways to abstract:
  • Words. The earliest human method of abstraction was to represent objects with words. Words also represent ideas. But words can have different meanings.
  • Graphs. Pictures, especially graphical pictures. Many economic theories are abstractly represented with graphs. A picture or graph can be less confusing that words.
  • Equations. Graphs are two-dimensional pictures of mathematical equations. Economic theories are often abstractly represented by equations. Equations can represent relationships between three or more things, like that for X, Y and Z:
Y = 3 + 2X - 4Z

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UNEMPLOYMENT RATE

The proportion of the civilian labor force 16 years or older that is actively seeking employment, but is unemployed and not engaged in the production of goods and services. The unemployment rate is estimated and reported monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor. It is used not only as the prime measure of labor unemployment in the economy, but also as a key indicator of business-cycle instability. In principle, the unemployment rate measures the proportion of the labor that is willing and able to work, but not employed. In practice, the official unemployment rate is simply the ratio of total unemployment to the total civilian labor force, in percentage terms.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway hoping to buy either a birthday greeting card for your grandfather or a weathervane with a cow on top. Be on the lookout for infected paper cuts.
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Rosemary, long associated with remembrance, was worn as wreaths by students in ancient Greece during exams.
"Now is the only time there is. Make your now wow, your minutes miracles, and your days pay. Your life will have been magnificently lived and invested, and when you die you will have made a difference."

-- Mark Victor Hansen

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