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May 28, 2022 

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DEPRECIATION: A more or less permanent decrease in value or price. "More or less permanent" doesn't include temporary, short-term drops in price that are common in many markets. It's only those price declines that reflect a reduction in consumer satisfaction. While all sorts of stuff can depreciate in value, some of the more common ones are capital, real estate, corporate stock, and money. The depreciation of capital results from the rigors of production and affects our economy's ability to produce stuff. A sizable portion of our annual investment is thus needed to replace depreciated capital. The depreciation of a nation's money is seen as an increase in the exchange rate. This process is described in detail in the entry on the J curve.

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SOCIAL SECURITY: A system for providing financial assistance to the poor, elderly, and disabled. The social security system in the United States was established by the Social Security Act (1935) in response to the devastating problems of the Great Depression. Our current Social Security system has several parts. The first part, Old Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) is the one the usually comes to mind when the phrase "Social Security" comes up. It provides benefits to anyone who has reached a certain age and who has paid taxes into the program while employed. It also provides benefits to qualified recipients survivors or dependents. The second part of the system is Disability Insurance (DI), which provides benefits to workers and their dependents in the case of physical disabilities that keeps them from working. The third part is Hospital Insurance (HI), more commonly termed medicare. Medicare provides two types of benefits, hospital coverage for anyone in the OASI part of the system and optional supplemental medical benefits that require a monthly insurance premium. The last part of the social security system is Public Assistance (PA), which is the official term for welfare and is covered under it's own heading.

     See also | transfer payment | Great Depression | income | national income | personal income | tax | insurance | welfare | Baby Boomer | poverty | Social Security tax | income earned but not received | income received but not earned |


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AVERAGE FACTOR COST CURVE, PERFECT COMPETITION

A curve that graphically represents the relation between average factor cost incurred by a perfectly competitive firm for employing an input and the quantity of input used. Because average factor cost is essentially the price of the input, the average factor cost curve is also the supply curve for the input. The average factor cost curve for a perfectly competitive firm with no market control is horizontal. The average revenue curve for a firm with market control is positively sloped.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time browsing through a long list of dot com websites hoping to buy either decorative picture frames or storage boxes for your income tax returns. Be on the lookout for broken fingernail clippers.
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One of the largest markets for gold in the United States is the manufacturing of class rings.
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World Federation of Trade Unions
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