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ACTUAL INVESTMENT: Investment expenditures that the business sector actual undertakes during a given time period, including both planned investment and any unplanned inventory changes. This is a critical component of Keynesian economics and the analysis of macroeconomic equilibrium, which occurs when actual investment is equal to planned investment. The difference between planned and actual investment is unplanned investment, which is inventory changes caused by a difference between aggregate expenditures and aggregate output. Should actual and planned investment differ, then aggregate expenditures are not equal to aggregate output, and the macroeconomy is not in equilibrium.

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SOCIAL SECURITY TAX: A tax on wage earnings that's used to fund the Social Security system. In principle, the Social Security tax is divided equally between employer and employee--your share is listed under the FICA heading of your paycheck. In practice, however, employees really end up paying both employee and employer contributes. The reason is that employers need to consider the entire cost of hiring an employee, including wages, fringe benefits, and assorted taxes. The more they pay in these nonwage items, like Social Security taxes, the less they pay in wages. In that the Social security tax is only on earnings, and excludes profit, interest, and rent, it tends to be a regressive tax.

     See also | tax | wage | Social Security | opportunity cost | profit | interest | rent | regressive tax | payroll tax |


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INFLATIONARY EXPECTATIONS, AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES DETERMINANT

One of several specific aggregate expenditures determinants assumed constant when the aggregate expenditures line is constructed, and that shifts the aggregate expenditures line when it changes. An increase in inflationary expectations causes an increase (upward shift) of the aggregate expenditures line. A decrease in inflationary expectations causes a decrease (downward shift) of the aggregate expenditures line. Other notable aggregate expenditures determinants include interest rates, federal deficit, consumer confidence, and exchange rates.

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