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ZERO-BASE BUDGET: A method of budgeting expenditures in which each expenditure is justified on its overall merits rather than being based on the budget for the previous year. A zero-base budget is most often proposed (but seldom implemented) for governments. Governments generally establish budget expenditures based on expenditures for the previous year. If, for example, budget expenditures last year were $100 billion, the requested budget for this year might be set at $110 billion. The existing $100 billion is a "given" and only the extra $10 billion is justified. With a zero-base budget, the entire $110 billion is justified.

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ANTITRUST LAWS: A series of laws passed by the U. S. government that tries to maintain competition and prevent businesses from getting a monopoly or otherwise obtaining and exerting market control. The first of these, the Sherman Antitrust Act, was passed in 1890. Two others, the Clayton Act and the Federal Trade Commission Act, were enacted in 1914. These laws impose all sorts of restrictions on business ownership, control, mergers, pricing, and how businesses go about competing (or cooperating) with each other.

     See also | Sherman Act | Clayton Act | Federal Trade Commission Act | Federal Trade Commission | monopoly | oligopoly | government | regulation | market control | merger | natural monopoly | price fixing | first estate | second estate | third estate |


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INTERNATIONAL FINANCE

The study of the flow of monetary payments and the exchange of currencies among nations undertaken as a necessary complement to the international trading of goods and services. The exchange of currencies takes place through the foreign exchange market, which determines the foreign exchange rate, or exchange rate or one currency for another. The balance of payments documents the flow of currency payments into and out of a given country. A related area of study is international trade, both of which are part of the broader study of international economics.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time driving to a factory outlet hoping to buy either a square lamp shade with frills along the bottom or an electric coffee pot with automatic shutoff. Be on the lookout for defective microphones.
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Approximately three-fourths of the U.S. paper currency in circular contains traces of cocaine.
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