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June 18, 2024 

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LOGROLLING: A systematic exchange of votes by politicians to obtain approval of specific legislation. That is, Senator Grapht agrees to vote for Senator Brybe's pet project if Senator Brybe votes for Senator Grapht's favorite piece of legislation. Such logrolling can be explicit or implicit. The explicit kind involves two separate bills, in which each politician is forced to "go on record" with a vote. The implicit kind, which many politicians favor, is where several separate programs are wrapped into a single bill. Every politician can then tell the folks back home that they really only wanted the "one thing" that helped their constituencies the most, but had to vote for "other things" as well. Logrolling is big reason our government is big and prone to inefficiency.

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FIRST ESTATE: In past centuries, this included the religious leaders and clergy. In modern times, I like to use it in reference to politicians and government leaders who can exert a great deal of control over resources through the coercive powers of government. One historical function of the first estate is to protect the less powerful consumers, taxpayers, and workers of the third estate from the market control typically held by the business leaders of the second estate. It is not uncommon, however, for an unhealthy degree of cooperation between the first and second estates, which often ends up with the enslavement of the third estate (figuratively and literally). At times help is forthcoming from the watchdog journalist of the fourth estate--unless they too have been overtaken by the ruling elite.

     See also | government | public sector | government sector | second estate | third estate | fourth estate | government functions | market failure | consumers | market control |


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FIRST ESTATE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: June 18, 2024].


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AVERAGE VARIABLE COST CURVE

A curve that graphically represents the relation between average variable cost incurred by a firm in the short-run product of a good or service and the quantity produced. This curve is constructed to capture the relation between average variable cost and the level of output, holding other variables, like technology and resource prices, constant. The average variable cost curve is one of three average curves. The other two are average total cost curve and average fixed cost curve. A related curve is the marginal cost curve.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching the newspaper want ads seeking to buy either a pair of leather sandals that won't cause blisters or clothing for your kitty cats. Be on the lookout for letters from the Internal Revenue Service.
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The first U.S. fire insurance company was established by Benjamin Franklin in 1752 in Philadelphia.
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