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November 27, 2022 

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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE: A principle of taxation in which taxes are based on the income or resource-ownership ability of people to pay the tax. The income tax collected by our friends at the Internal Revenue Service is one of the most common taxes that seeks to abide by the ability-to-pay principle. In theory, the income tax system is set up such that people with greater incomes pay more taxes. Proportional and progressive taxes follow this ability-to-pay principle, while regressive taxes, such as sales taxes and Social Security taxes, don't.

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MARKET FAILURE: A condition in which a market does not efficiently allocate resources to achieve the greatest possible consumer satisfaction. The four main market failures are--(1) public good, (2) market control, (3) externality, and (4) imperfect information. In each case, a market acting without any government imposed direction, does not direct an efficient amount of our resources into the production, distribution, or consumption of the good.

     See also | market | fifth rule of imperfection | sixth rule of ignorance | public good | market control | externalities | production | consumption | information | pollution | regulation |


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AVERAGE REVENUE, MONOPOLY

The revenue received for selling a good per unit of output sold, found by dividing total revenue by the quantity of output. Average revenue often goes by a simpler and more widely used term... price. For a monopoly average revenue is greater than marginal revenue. Average revenue for a monopoly is often depicted by a negatively-sloped average revenue curve.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time visiting every yard sale in a 30-mile radius looking to buy either a coffee cup commemorating the first day of spring or a printer that works with your stockpile of ink cartridges. Be on the lookout for strangers with large satchels of used undergarments.
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On a typical day, the United States Mint produces over $1 million worth of dimes.
"It had long since come to my attention that people of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and happened to things. "

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