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December 7, 2022 

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LORENZ CURVE: In general, a diagram illustrating the degree of inequality and concentration for a group. This is accomplished by plotting the cumulative percentage of a total amount obtained by cumulative percentages of the group. A common use of the Lorenz curve is the distribution of income, in which the cumulative percentage of income is measured on the vertical axis and the cumulative percentage of the population is measured on the horizontal axis. Perfect equality is indicated by a 45-degree line (that is, 10% of the population has 10% of the income, 20% of the population has 20% of the income, etc.). The actual Lorenz curve inevitably lies below the 45-degree line. The extent that the Lorenz curve differs from the 45-degree line indicates the extent of inequality.

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PUBLIC GOOD: A good that's difficult to keep nonpayers from consuming (excludability), and use of the good by one person doesn't prevent use by others (rival consumption). Examples include national defense, a clean environment, and any fourth of July fireworks display. Public goods are invariably provided by government because there's no way a private business can profitably produce them. Private businesses can't sell public goods in markets, because they can't charge a price and keep nonpaying people away. Moreover, businesses shouldn't charge a price, because there's no opportunity cost for extra consumers. For efficiency, government needs to pay for public goods through taxes.

     See also | good types | excludability | rival consumption | efficiency | market | exchange | market failure | common-property good | near-public good | private good | free-rider problem |


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PUBLIC GOOD, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: December 7, 2022].


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TOTAL PHYSICAL PRODUCT

The total quantity of output produced by a firm for a given quantity of inputs. Total physical product is actually nothing more than total product. The insertion of the word "physical" merely keeps the phrase consistent with average physical product and marginal physical product, two terms useful in marginal-productivity theory and the analysis of factor demand.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club trying to buy either a tall storage cabinet with five shelves and a secure lock or a birthday greeting card for your grandmother. Be on the lookout for slightly overweight pizza delivery guys.
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In the Middle Ages, pepper was used for bartering, and it was often more valuable and stable in value than gold.
"Use, do not abuse; neither abstinence nor excess ever renders man happy."

-- Voltaire, philosopher

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