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HISTORICAL COST: An accounting principle stating that expenses are recorded in terms of original or acquisition cost. Such a practice does not necessarily indicate the opportunity cost or current market value.

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POLLUTION: Any waste that imposes an opportunity cost when it's returned to the natural environment. Pollution is one of the more prevalent examples of an externality cost and market failure. Examples include, but by no means are limited to, car exhaust, municipal sewage, industrial waste, and agricultural chemical runoff from farms. Pollution waste can be classified as degradable, persistent, or nondegradable, depending on how easily it can be broken down into nonharmful form by the natural environment. Pollution problems can never be eliminated, but they can be handled with efficiency if the amount of pollution is such that the cost of damages is the same as the cost of cleanup.

     See also | market failure | externality | environment | natural resources | materials balance | efficiency | Pigouvian tax | recycling | regulation | Coase theorem | command and control | pollution rights market |


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POLLUTION, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: April 21, 2024].


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MONEY CREATION, THE PROCESS

The process in which the banking system creates checkable deposits by lending excess reserves. The total amount of checkable deposits (and money) created by the banking system depends on the amount of excess reserves available and the reserve requirement ratio specifying the reserves needed to back up deposits. The money creation process is the movement of reserves from bank to bank, with each bank using excess reserves to make loans (and checkable deposits), then keeping a fraction of the reserves to back up newly created deposits. The deposit expansion multiplier captures the money creation process, indicating the amount of checkable deposits created if the banking reserve acquires a given amount of excess reserves.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time browsing through a long list of dot com websites seeking to buy either a really, really exciting, action-filled video game or a coffee cup commemorating the moon landing. Be on the lookout for slow moving vehicles with darkened windows.
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