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July 17, 2024 

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LOCAL OUTPUT: An output that has a relatively small geographic market area due to the high cost of transportation. The high transportation cost means it is easier (that is, less expensive) to locate consumers near the output rather than trying to bring the output to the consumers. Like many things, local outputs are a matter of degree. At the other end of the spectrum lies transferrable outputs. Services, such as legal advice, health care, and entertainment, that are consumed as they are produced, tend to have a great deal of local orientation.

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EXTERNALITY: A cost or benefit that is not included in the market price of a good because it's not included in the supply price or the demand price. Pollution is an example of an externality cost if producers aren't the ones who suffer from pollution damages. Education is an example of an externality benefit when members of society other than students benefit from a more educated population. Externality is one type of market failure that causes inefficiency.

     See also | opportunity cost | market | supply price | demand price | market failure | efficiency | pollution | materials balance | good types | Pigouvian tax | Coase theorem |


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EXTERNALITY, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: July 17, 2024].


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SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION ALTERNATIVES

A firm faces three production options in the short run based on a comparison between price, average total cost, and average variable cost. If price is greater than average total cost, a firm earns an economic profit by producing the quantity that equates marginal revenue with marginal cost. If price is less than average total cost but greater than average variable cost, a firm incurs an economic loss, but produces the quantity that equates marginal revenue with marginal cost. If price is less than average variable cost, a firm shuts down production in the short run, incurring an economic loss equal to total fixed cost.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching the newspaper want ads seeking to buy either an extra large beach blanket or a large flower pot shaped like a Greek urn. Be on the lookout for fairy dust that tastes like salt.
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Approximately three-fourths of the U.S. paper currency in circular contains traces of cocaine.
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