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February 1, 2023 

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AP: The abbreviation for average product, which is the quantity of total output produced per unit of a variable input, holding all other inputs fixed. It is found by dividing total product by the quantity of the variable input. Average product, abbreviated AP also goes by the alias of average physical product (APP), so don't be confused by the extra term (physical).

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AUTOMATIC STABILIZERS: A feature of the federal government's budget that tends to reduce the ups and downs of the business cycle without the need for any special legislative action, that is stabilization policies. The two key automatic stabilizers are income taxes and transfer payments. When our economy drops into a recession, unemployment rises, aggregate output declines, and people have less income. But with less income, they pay fewer income taxes, and thus there's less of a drain on consumption than their might have been. Likewise, many who are unemployed get transfer payments in the form of unemployment compensation, welfare, or Social Security. This lets them consume more than they would have otherwise. During an expansion, both of these go in the other direction. As a result, a recession sees more spending and fewer taxes, while an expansion has less spending and more taxes, all occurring quite automatically.

     See also | business cycle | stabilization policies | fiscal policy | transfer payment | unemployment compensation | welfare | income tax | business cycle | contraction | expansion | consumption | income | aggregate output |


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AUTOMATIC STABILIZERS, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2023. [Accessed: February 1, 2023].


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FEDERAL FUNDS

A common term for Federal Reserve deposits held by commercial banks, especially when these deposits are loaned between banks through the Federal funds market. The interest rate charged for these interbank loans is termed the Federal funds rate. Federal funds are used by individual banks to meet reserve requirements and the total held by the banking system is manipulated by the Federal Reserve System in the conduct of monetary policy.

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The word "fiscal" is derived from a Latin word meaning "moneybag."
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