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April 14, 2024 

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SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION: The notion that economic activity is not evenly dispersed across the land. That is, goods, services, resources, production, and consumption are more concentrated at some locations and less concentrated at other locations due to natural endowments and human activity. The result is that no two location points have exactly the same access to inputs or outputs. This is a fundamental principle underlying the study of urban and regional economics and implies that firms and households must include transportation cost and location in production and consumption decisions.

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AVERAGE FIXED COST: Fixed cost per unit of output, found by dividing total fixed cost by the quantity of output. Average fixed cost is one of three related cost averages. The other two are average variable cost and average total cost. Average fixed cost, usually abbreviated AFC, decreases with larger quantities of output. The logic behind this relationship is relatively simply. Because fixed cost is FIXED and does not change with the quantity of output, a given cost is spread more thinly per unit as quantity increases. A thousand dollars of fixed cost averages out to $10 per unit if only 100 units are produced. But if 10,000 units are produced, then the average shrinks to a mere 10 cents per unit.

     See also | fixed cost | total fixed cost | average variable cost | average total cost | marginal cost | fixed input | total cost |


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AVERAGE FIXED COST, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: April 14, 2024].


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SLOPE, INVESTMENT LINE

The positive slope of the investment line is also termed the marginal propensity to invest (MPI). This slope is greater than zero but less than one, reflecting induced investment. The slope of the investment line affects the slope of the aggregate expenditures line and thus also affects the magnitude of the multiplier process.

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