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RATE OF RETURN: The ratio of the additional annual income or profit generated by an investment to the cost of the investment. Here's a simple example, although the calculations are usually a great deal more involved for actual investments. If the cost of constructing a new factory is $10 million and it gives you an extra $1 million in profit each year, then its rate of return is 10 percent.

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FIXED COST: In general, cost that does not change with changes in the quantity of output produced. More specifically, fixed cost is combined with the adjectives "total" and "average" to indicate the overall level of fixed cost or the per unit fixed cost. Fixed cost is incurred whether of not any output is produced. The same fixed cost is incurred at any and all output levels. This means that total fixed cost is, in fact, FIXED. However, it also means that average fixed cost, or fixed cost per unit, declines as the output level increases. Spreading out $100 over 1,000 units gives a lower per unit fixed cost that spreading out $100 over 10 units.

     See also | opportunity cost | total cost | total fixed cost | average fixed cost | variable cost | fixed input | variable input | short-run production |


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FIXED COST, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: February 21, 2024].


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KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS

A theory of macroeconomics developed by John Maynard Keynes based on the proposition that aggregate demand is the primary source of business-cycle instability and the most important cause of recessions. Keynesian economics points to discretionary government policies, especially fiscal policy, as the primary means of stabilizing business cycles and tends to be favored by those on the liberal end of the political spectrum. The basic principles of Keynesian economics were developed by Keynes in his book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in 1936. This work launched the modern study of macroeconomics and served as a guide for both macroeconomic theory and macroeconomic policies for four decades. Although it fell out of favor in the 1980s, Keynesian principles remain important to modern macroeconomic theories, especially aggregate market (AS-AD) analysis.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time visiting every yard sale in a 30-mile radius looking to buy either a desktop calendar with all federal and state holidays highlighted or a half-dozen helium filled balloons. Be on the lookout for pencil sharpeners with an attitude.
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Post WWI induced hyperinflation in German in the early 1900s raised prices by 726 million times from 1918 to 1923.
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