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MARKET TRANSACTION: The exchange of goods and services through a market. The set of market transactions taking place in the economy is most important in terms of measuring gross domestic product (GDP). Market transactions provide the basic data used by number crunchers at the Bureau of Economic Analysis to begin the estimation of GDP. However, these number crunchers don't just want to measure market transactions, their goal is to measure economic production. As such, they eliminate some market transactions that do not involve economic production, then add economic production that do not involve market transactions.

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BALANCE OF PAYMENTS: The difference between the funds received by a country and those paid by a country for all international transactions. The international transactions include the exchange of merchandise (exports and imports), which is commonly summarized as the balance of trade, plus the exchange of services, summarized as the balance of services, as well as any gifts or transfer payments that do not involve the exchange of goods and services. The balance of payments, in effect, indicates the difference between currency coming into a country and that flowing out of the country. The balance of payments is divided into two accounts -- current account (which includes payments for imports, exports, services, and transfers) and capital account (which includes payments for physical and financial assets).

     See also | foreign trade | international trade | export | import | balance of trade | balance of services | international finance | currency | foreign exchange market | transfer payment | balance of payments surplus | balance of payments deficit | current account | capital account | J curve |


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BALANCE OF PAYMENTS, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: July 21, 2024].


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CLASSICAL ECONOMICS

A theory of economics, especially directed toward macroeconomics, based on the unrestricted workings of markets and the pursuit of individual self interests. Classical economics relies on three key assumptions--flexible prices, Say's law, and saving-investment equality--in the analysis of macroeconomics. The primary implications of this theory are that markets automatically achieve equilibrium and in so doing maintain full employment of resources without the need for government intervention. Classical economics emerged from the foundations laid by Adam Smith in his book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, published in 1776. Although it fell out of favor in the 1930s, many classical principles remain important to modern macroeconomic theories, especially aggregate market (AS-AD) analysis, rational expectations theory, and supply-side economics.

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