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April 14, 2024 

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LERNER INDEX: The difference between price (p) and marginal cost (mc) as a fraction of price, that is [p-mc]/p. The Lerner index is usually taken as an indicator of market power because the larger the index, the larger the difference between price and marginal cost, that is, the larger the distance between the price and the competitive price. The Lerner index depends on the elasticity of demand. The Lerner index is also called the price-cost margin.

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COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE: The ability to produced one good at a relatively lower opportunity cost than other goods. While pointy-headed economists developed this idea for nations, it's extremely important for people. A comparative advantage means that no matter how good (or bad) you are at producing stuff, there's always something that you're best (or least worst) at doing. Moreover, because you can produce this one thing by giving up less than what others give up, you can sell it or trade it to them. This idea of comparative advantage means that people and nations can benefit by specialization and exchange. You do what you do best, then trade to someone else for what they do best. Both sides in this trade get more and are thus better off after than before.

     See also | foreign trade | export | import | opportunity cost | specialization | absolute advantage | foreign sector | exchange |


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COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: April 14, 2024].


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MACROECONOMIC MARKETS

Three sets of markets that make up the macroeconomy--product, financial, and resource--which exchange the three primary types of macroeconomic commodities--gross production, legal claims, and factor services. The four macroeconomic sectors--household, business, government, and foreign--interact through these three sets of markets. The primary objective of macroeconomic theories is to explain activity that takes place in these three sets of markets.

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