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October 19, 2021 

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EIGHT-FIRM CONCENTRATION RATIO: The proportion of total output in an industry that's produced by the eight largest firms in the industry. This is one of two common concentration ratios. The other is the four-firm concentration ratio. The eight-firm concentration ratio is commonly used to indicate the degree to which an industry is oligopolistic and how market control is held by the eight largest firms in the industry.

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COST OF LIVING: The amount of income or money needed to acquire a given quantity of goods and services or to achieve a given living standard. This cost of living notion is closely intertwined with inflation, the economy's price level, and the concept of purchasing power. The cost of living is typically indicated by a price index such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The CPI, for example, measures the changing cost of a specific market basket of goods. An increase in the CPI indicates that the cost of this market basket has increased, and presumably so too has the cost of living. In fact, labor union wages, benefits paid to Social Security recipients, and similar income sources are regularly adjusted for changes in the cost of living using the CPI.

     See also | income | inflation | price level | money | living standard | purchasing power | Consumer Price Index | wage | union | Social Security |


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KINKED-DEMAND CURVE ANALYSIS

An analysis using the kinked-demand curve to explain rigid prices often found with oligopoly. The kinked-demand curve contains two distinct segments--one for higher prices that is more elastic and one for lower prices that is less elastic. Key to this analysis is that the corresponding marginal revenue curve contains three segments--one associated with the more elastic segment, one associated with the less elastic segment, and one associated with the kink. A profit-maximizing firm can then equate marginal cost to a wide range of marginal revenue values along the vertical segment of the marginal revenue curve. This suggests that marginal cost must change significantly before an oligopolistic firm is inclined to change price.

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