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August 9, 2022 

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SHORT-RUN SUPPLY CURVE: For a perfectly competitive firm, the marginal cost curve that lies above the average variable cost curve. This segment of the marginal cost guides a perfectly competitive firm's profit maximizing production as it equates price to marginal cost. Because the marginal cost curve is positively sloped (due to the law of diminishing marginal returns), each firm's supply curve and the market supply curve are also positively sloped. The law of diminishing marginal returns thus provides an explanation for the law of supply. However, this only works for firms with NO market control. Monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly, with market control, do not achieve the same result.

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INDUCED GOVERNMENT PURCHASES: Government purchases that depend on income or production (especially national income or gross national product). An increase in national income triggers an increase in induced government purchases. Induced government purchases is graphically depicted as the slope of the government purchases line and is measured by the marginal propensity for government purchases. The induced relation between income and government purchases, as well as other induced expenditures, form the foundation of the multiplier effect triggered by changes in autonomous expenditures.

     See also | government purchases | national income | gross domestic income | slope | government purchases line | marginal propensity to invest | autonomous government purchases | induced expenditure | autonomous expenditure | multiplier | accelerator |


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INDUCED GOVERNMENT PURCHASES, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: August 9, 2022].


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REAL-BALANCE EFFECT

A change in aggregate expenditures on real production made by the household, business, government, and foreign sectors that results because a change in the price level alters the purchasing power of money. This is one of three effects underlying the negative slope of the aggregate demand curve associated with a movement along the aggregate demand curve and a change in aggregate expenditures. The other two are interest-rate effect and net-export effect. The real-balance effect is somewhat analogous to the income effect underlying the negative slope of the market demand curve.

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