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ACCOUNTING COST: The actual outlays or expenses incurred in production that shows up a firm's accounting statements or records. Accounting costs, while very important to accountants, company CEOs, shareholders, and the Internal Revenue Service, is only minimally important to economists. The reason is that economists are primarily interested in economic cost (also called opportunity cost). That fact is that accounting costs and economic costs aren't always the same. An opportunity or economic cost is the value of foregone production. Some economic costs, actually a lot of economic opportunity costs, never show up as accounting costs. Moreover, some accounting costs, while legal, bonified payments by a firm, are not associated with any sort of opportunity cost.

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LONG-RUN ADJUSTMENT, PERFECT COMPETITION: The combined adjustment of a perfectly competitive industry and of each firm in the industry to an equilibrium condition that eliminates all economic profits and losses, while each firm selects a factor size that maximizes profit. This adjustment process involves two parts. One is the adjustment of each perfectly competitive firm to the appropriate factory size that maximizes long-run profit. The other is the entry of firms into the industry or exit of firms out of the industry, to eliminated economic profits or economic losses. The end result of this long-run adjustment is a multi-faceted equilibrium condition: P = AR = MR = MC = LRMC = ATC = LRAC

     See also | long run | perfect competition | industry | profit maximization | economic profit | normal profit | average revenue | marginal revenue | average total cost | long-run equilibrium conditions |


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AGGREGATE SUPPLY INCREASE, SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET

A shock to the short-run aggregate market caused by an increase in aggregate supply, resulting in and illustrated by a rightward shift of the short-run aggregate supply curve. An increase in aggregate supply in the short-run aggregate market results in a decrease in the price level and an increase in real production. The level of real production resulting from the shock can be greater or less than full-employment real production.

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In 1914, Ford paid workers who were age 22 or older $5 per day -- double the average wage offered by other car factories.
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