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December 7, 2022 

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BANK RESERVES: The "money" that banks use to conduct day-to-day business, including cashing checks, satisfying customers's withdrawals, and clearing checks between accounts at different banks. The "money" in question includes vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits. Specifically, vault cash is the paper money and coins that a bank keeps on the bank premises (both in the vault and in teller drawers), which is used to "cash" checks and otherwise provide the funds that customers withdraw. Federal Reserve deposits are accounts that banks keep with the Federal Reserve System, which are used to process, in a systematic, centralized fashion, the millions of checks written each day by customers of one bank that are deposited by customers of another bank. Using these deposits, the Fed acts as a central clearing house for checks, being able to simultaneously debit the account of one bank and credit the account of another. More on the importance of bank reserves can be found under fractional-reserve banking.

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MARGIN REQUIREMENT: The fraction of the purchase price of financial investments, like stocks and bonds, that the buyer must pay for in cash. The remaining part of the purchase price can thus be financed with credit.

     See also | corporate stock | corporate bond | credit | leverage | rate of return | financial markets | stock market | Federal Reserve System | speculation |


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MARGIN REQUIREMENT, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: December 7, 2022].


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OLIGOPOLY, CHARACTERISTICS

The three most important characteristics of oligopoly are: (1) an industry dominated by a small number of large firms, (2) firms sell either identical or differentiated products, and (3) the industry has significant barriers to entry.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway hoping to buy either storage boxes for your income tax returns or an AC adapter for your CD player. Be on the lookout for rusty deck screws.
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In 1914, Ford paid workers who were age 22 or older $5 per day -- double the average wage offered by other car factories.
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