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April 21, 2024 

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RISK POOLING: Combining the uncertainty of individuals into a calculable risk for large groups. For example, you may or may not contract the flu this year. However, if you're thrown in with 99,999 other people, then health-care types who spend their lives measuring the odds of an illness, can predict that 1 percent of the group, or 1,000 people, will get the flu. The uncertainty is that they probably don't know which 1,000 people, they only know the number afflicted. This little bit of information is what makes risk pooling possible. If the cost is $50 per illness, then an insurance company can insure your 100,000-member group against flu if they collect $50,000 ($50 x 1,000 sick people), or 50 cents per person. By agreeing to pay the cost of each sick person in exchange for the 50 cent payments, the insurance company has effectively pooled the risk of the group.

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PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT: The acquisition of financial assets (which includes stock, bonds, deposits, and currencies) from one country in another country. In contrast to foreign direct investment, which is the acquisition of controlling interest in foreign firms and businesses, portfolio investment is foreign investment into the stock markets. Most economists consider foreign direct investment more useful than portfolio investment since this last one is generally regarded as temporal and can leave the foreign country at the first sign of trouble.

     See also | foreign direct investment | corporate stock | investment | physical capital | stock market | financial markets |


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PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: April 21, 2024].


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COLLUSION

A usually secret agreement among competing firms in an industry (primarily oligopoly) to dominate the market, control the market price, and otherwise act like a monopoly. The reason for the secrecy is that such behavior is illegal in the United States under antitrust laws. Collusion can take one of two forms. Explicit collusion occurs when two or more firms in the same industry formally agree to control the market. Implicit collusion occurs when two or more firms in the same industry control the market through informal, interdependent actions. Collusion is one of two ways oligopoly firms cooperate to avoid competition. The other is through mergers.

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RED AGGRESSERINE
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store trying to buy either a pair of red and purple designer socks or a T-shirt commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki. Be on the lookout for florescent light bulbs that hum folk songs from the sixties.
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The earliest known use of paper currency was about 1270 in China during the rule of Kubla Khan.
"The vacuum created by failure to communicate will quickly be filled with rumor, misrepresentations, drivel and poison. "

-- C. Northcote Parkinson, historian

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