Wednesday  November 30, 2022
 AmosWEB means Economics with a Touch of Whimsy!
 RISK POOLING: Combining the uncertainty of individuals into a calculable risk for large groups. For example, you may or may not contract the flu this year. However, if you're thrown in with 99,999 other people, then health-care types who spend their lives measuring the odds of an illness, can predict that 1 percent of the group, or 1,000 people, will get the flu. The uncertainty is that they probably don't know which 1,000 people, they only know the number afflicted. This little bit of information is what makes risk pooling possible. If the cost is \$50 per illness, then an insurance company can insure your 100,000-member group against flu if they collect \$50,000 (\$50 x 1,000 sick people), or 50 cents per person. By agreeing to pay the cost of each sick person in exchange for the 50 cent payments, the insurance company has effectively pooled the risk of the group.

INTERCEPT, SAVING LINE:

The intercept of the saving line indicates autonomous saving, saving that does not depend on the level of income or production. This can be thought of as the baseline level of saving that would be undertaken if income falls to zero. Autonomous saving is affected by the consumption expenditures determinants, which cause a change in the intercept and a shift of the saving line. The value of the intercept of the saving line is the negative of the value of the intercept of the consumption line.
Saving Line

The saving line, also termed propensity-to-save line or saving function, shows the relation between saving and income for the household sector. The income measure commonly used is national income or disposable income. Occasionally a measure of aggregate production, such as gross domestic product, is used instead.

A representative saving line is presented in the exhibit to the right. This green line, labeled S in the exhibit, is positively sloped, indicating that greater levels of income generate greater saving by the household sector. This positive relation corresponds to the fundamental psychological law of Keynesian economics.

The saving line graphically illustrates the saving-income relation for the household sector, which is the foundation of the leakages line used in Keynesian economics to identify equilibrium income and production.

The intercept of the saving line indicates the intersection point between the saving line and the vertical saving axis. The saving line intersects the vertical axis at a value of -\$1 trillion. Theoretically, this is a minimum "baseline" level of saving, the amount of saving undertaken if income falls to zero. This level happens to be negative because consumption exceeds income. More to the point, this intersection indicates autonomous saving--saving unrelated to income. Click the [Intercept] button to illustrate.

Autonomous saving is saving by the household sector that is unrelated to and unaffected by the level of income or production. This is best indicated by a zero level of income. While individuals occasionally come face-to-face with autonomous saving, as their incomes drop to zero due to unemployment, for the aggregate economy autonomous saving is mostly an unlikely theoretical extrapolation.

However, from an analytical perspective, the intercept of the saving line is affected by the consumption expenditures determinants. These are ceteris paribus factors other than income that affect consumption and thus also affect saving, but which are held constant when the saving line is constructed. Any change in these determinants cause the saving line to shift, which necessarily means a new intercept and a new level of autonomous saving.

 <= INTERCEPT, NET EXPORTS LINE INTEREST-RATE EFFECT =>

Recommended Citation:

INTERCEPT, SAVING LINE, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: November 30, 2022].

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