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January 18, 2018 

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SOCIAL SECURITY TAX: A tax on wage earnings that's used to fund the Social Security system. In principle, the Social Security tax is divided equally between employer and employee--your share is listed under the FICA heading of your paycheck. In practice, however, employees really end up paying both employee and employer contributes. The reason is that employers need to consider the entire cost of hiring an employee, including wages, fringe benefits, and assorted taxes. The more they pay in these nonwage items, like Social Security taxes, the less they pay in wages. In that the Social security tax is only on earnings, and excludes profit, interest, and rent, it tends to be a regressive tax.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Price Taker
  • A Perfect Market
  • Characteristics
  • Revenue
  • Profit Maximization
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Short-Run Output
  • The Revenue Side
  • The Revenue Numbers
  • The Cost Side
  • Comparing Totals
  • Comparing Marginals
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Doing Graphs
  • Total Curves
  • Profit Curve
  • Marginal Curves
  • Dividing Revenue
  • Short-Run Alternatives
  • Short-Run Supply
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Long-Run Equilibrium
  • Long-Run Marginal Cost
  • Adjustment
  • Entry And Exit
  • Equilibrium Conditions
  • Long-Run Supply
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Evaluation
  • The Good
  • The Bad
  • Market Control
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Perfect Competition

    • The first unit of this lesson, Price Taker, begins this study with a look at the general structure of a perfectly competitive market.
    • In the second unit, Short-Run Output, we take a look at the short-run production decision faced by a perfectly competitive firm based on the cost and revenue numbers.
    • The third unit, Doing Graphs, then looks at the short-run production decision faced by a perfectly competitive firm using a graphical analysis of cost and revenue.
    • In the fourth unit, Long-Run Equilibrium, we examine the nature of long-run adjustment by a perfectly competition industry when all inputs are variable.
    • The fifth and final unit, Evaluation, then closes this lesson by considering the pros and cons of a perfectly competitive industry.

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    ECONOMICS OF INFORMATION

    The study of the role that information plays in the economy and in the allocation of resources, with special attention paid to efficient information search. Key topics in this area of study and analysis are asymmetric information, moral hazard, adverse selection, signalling, and screening. This study of the economics of information also provides insight into the analysis of risk and uncertainty, which are important to insurance and financial markets.

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    APLS

    BLACK DISMALAPOD
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club trying to buy either a case of blank recordable DVDs or a pair of red goulashes with shiny buckles. Be on the lookout for defective microphones.
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    The portion of aggregate output U.S. citizens pay in taxes (30%) is less than the other six leading industrialized nations -- Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, or Japan.
    "Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things that you didn't do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines. Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover."

    -- Mark Twain

    TOCOM
    Tokyo Commodity Exchange (Japan)
    A PEDestrian's Guide
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