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ACTUAL INVESTMENT: Investment expenditures that the business sector actual undertakes during a given time period, including both planned investment and any unplanned inventory changes. This is a critical component of Keynesian economics and the analysis of macroeconomic equilibrium, which occurs when actual investment is equal to planned investment. The difference between planned and actual investment is unplanned investment, which is inventory changes caused by a difference between aggregate expenditures and aggregate output. Should actual and planned investment differ, then aggregate expenditures are not equal to aggregate output, and the macroeconomy is not in equilibrium.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Intro
  • Factor Market
  • Two Sides
  • Equilibrium
  • Competition
  • Circular Flow
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Market Control
  • Selling Side
  • Buying Side
  • Monopsony
  • Imperfect Competition
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Perfect Competition
  • Many Buyers
  • Employment
  • Efficiency
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Monopsony
  • One Buyer
  • Employment
  • Efficiency
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Bilateral Monopoly
  • Monopoly
  • Two Sides
  • Four Marginal Curves
  • Employment
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Factor Market Equilibrium

    My duties for this lesson are to examine how the two sides of the factor market -- factor demand and factor supply -- come together to form the factor market. Like other markets, we are concerned with equilibrium and competition. The analysis of factor markets has an added bonus. It lets us examine market control from the buying side to balance other analysis of market control from the selling side. The cornerstone phrase capturing this buying-side market control is monopsony.

    • The first unit of this lesson, The Foundation, begins by reviewing factor demand and factor supply and seeing how they come together to form the factor market.
    • In the second unit, Market Control, we see how market control on the selling side of a factor market gives rise to assorted market structures, like monopsony.
    • The third unit, Perfect Competition, then takes a look at equilibrium in factor markets that operate under the guidelines of perfect competition.
    • In the fourth unit, Monopsony, we extend the analysis to factor markets with control on the buying side, especially monopsony.
    • The fifth and final unit, Bilateral Monopoly, then analyzes factor markets with monopoly control on the selling side to counter monopsony control on the buying side.

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    COMPENSATION OF EMPLOYEES

    The official item in the National Income and Product Accounts maintained by the Bureau of Economics Analysis measuring wages earned by the household sector for supplying labor services. This is one of five official factor payments making up national income. The other four are net interest, rental income of persons, corporate profits, and proprietors' income. Compensation of employees is far and away the largest of the five factor payments, typically running about 70 percent of national income.

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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through mail order catalogs seeking to buy either a birthday gift for your father that doesn't look like every other birthday gift for your father or a green fountain pen. Be on the lookout for slow moving vehicles with darkened windows.
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    During the American Revolution, the price of corn rose 10,000 percent, the price of wheat 14,000 percent, the price of flour 15,000 percent, and the price of beef 33,000 percent.
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