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EFFICIENT: The state of resource allocation the exists when the highest level of consumer satisfaction is achieved from the available resources. Competitive markets, absent of any market failure and especially market control by either side, is efficient. In particular, this feat is accomplished when the price buyers are willing and able to pay for a good--based on the satisfaction obtained--is equal to the price sellers need to charge for a good--based on the opportunity cost of production. In other words, the value (satisfaction) of stuff given up to get a good is the same as the value (satisfaction) of the good produced. Satisfaction won't increase by producing more of either.

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Lesson 8: Market Shocks | Unit 3: Single Shifts Page: 9 of 20

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The six steps for a decrease in demand:
  • A determinant changes. The price of pecan pie, a substitute for hot fudge sundaes, declines.
  • A curve to shifts. The demand curve for hot fudge sundaes shifts leftward.
  • A shortage or a surplus occurs. The decrease in demand causes a surplus of hot fudge sundaes.
  • The price changes. The price of hot fudge sundaes goes down.
  • The quantities demanded and supplied change. The quantity supplied for hot fudge sundaes decreases while their quantity demand is increased.
  • The market imbalance is eliminated and equilibrium is restored. The surplus of hot fudge sundaes is eliminated. The price is lower and the quantity exchanged is less.

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UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

Illegal and unreported market transactions and productive activity that escape the watchful eyes of official record keepers. By most estimates, a substantial amount of productive activity takes place in the underground economy of the United States. Of course, these are only estimates because such activity, by definition, goes unreported. If activity in the underground economy is added to official activity in the "overground" economy, then gross domestic product could be boosted by as much as 25 percent to 50 percent, or more. Inclusion of employment in the underground economy is also likely reduce the official unemployment rate by a few percentage points.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store hoping to buy either an electric coffee pot with automatic shutoff or a brown leather attache case. Be on the lookout for neighborhood pets, especially belligerent parrots.
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North Carolina supplied all the domestic gold coined for currency by the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia until 1828.
"Being defeated is only a temporary condition; giving up is what makes it permanent."

-- Marilyn vos Savant, Author

PPP
Purchasing Power Parity
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