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PAR VALUE: The stated, or face, value of a legal claim or financial asset. For debt securities, such as corporate bonds or U. S. Treasury securities, this is amount to be repaid at the time of maturity. For equity securities, that is, corporate stocks, this is the initial value set up at the time it is issued. Par value, also called face value, is not necessarily, and often is not, equal to the current market price of the asset. A $10,000 U.S. Treasury note, for example, has a par value of $10,000, but might have a current market price of $9,950. The difference between par value and current price contributes to the yield or return on such assets. An asset is selling at a discount if the current price is less than the par value and is selling at a premium if the current price is more than the par value.

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Lesson 9: Macro Basics | Unit 4: Policies Page: 11 of 16

Topic: Government <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Government tries to bring the economy closer to the macro goals of full employment, stability and growth, and to lessen the scarcity problem.
  • Economic policies are government actions designed to affect the economy to pursue the economic goals.
  • Stabilization policies (or counter-cyclical policies) are designed to limit economic instability and business cycles and avoid high rates of unemployment and inflation.
Key macroeconomic stabilization policies:
  • Fiscal policy is the use of government spending and taxes to stabilize the economy.
  • Monetary policy is the use of the amount of money in circulation to stabilize the economy.

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ABSTRACTION

Simplifying the complexities of the real world by ignoring (hopefully) unimportant details while doing economic analysis. Abstraction is an essential feature of the scientific method. Hypothesis verification, model construction, and comparative static analysis are not possible without abstraction.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store trying to buy either a coffee cup commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki or a rechargeable battery for your cell phone. Be on the lookout for crowded shopping malls.
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A lump of pure gold the size of a matchbox can be flattened into a sheet the size of a tennis court!
"The only thing that will stop you from fulfilling your dreams is you. "

-- Tom Bradley, former Los Angeles mayor

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