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SCARCITY RENT: The marginal opportunity cost imposed on future generations by extracting one more unit of a resource today. Scarcity rent is one of two costs the extraction of a finite resource imposes on society. The other is marginal extraction cost--the opportunity cost of resources employed in the extraction activity. Scarcity rent is the cost of "using up" a finite resource because benefits of the extracted resource are unavailable to future generations. Efficiency is achieved when the resource price--the benefit society is willing to pay for the resource today--is equal to the sum of marginal extraction cost and scarcity rent.

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AGGREGATE DEMAND: The total (or aggregate) real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers would willing and able to make at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand (AD) is one half of the aggregate market analysis; the other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand, relates the economy's price level, measured by the GDP price deflator, and aggregate expenditures on domestic production, measured by real gross domestic product. The aggregate expenditures are consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports made by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign).

     See also | economy | aggregate expenditures | domestic | aggregate market analysis | price level | real production | aggregate supply | GDP price deflator | gross domestic product | real gross domestic product | consumption expenditures | investment expenditures | government purchases | net exports | household sector | business sector | government sector | foreign sector | market demand | interest-rate effect | real-balance effect | net-export effect | income effect | substitution effect |


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AGGREGATE DEMAND, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: July 4, 2022].


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FACTOR MARKET, EFFICIENCY

A factor market achieves efficiency in the allocation of resources by equating marginal revenue product to factor price. Perfect competition, as the efficiency benchmark, is the only market structure to satisfy this criterion and achieve factor market efficiency. Monopsony, oligopsony, and monopsonistic competition are inefficient because they equate marginal revenue product to marginal factor cost, both of which are greater than factor price.

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