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PERFECT COMPETITION AND EFFICIENCY: Perfect competition is the idealized market structure that achieves an efficient allocation of resources. The conditions of perfect competition, including (1) large number of small firms, (2) identical products sold by all firms, (3) freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and (4) perfect knowledge of prices and technology, ensure that perfect competition efficiently allocates resources. This is in fact the purpose of perfect competition: a market structure that illustrates perfection, the best of all possible resource allocation worlds. The real world falls short of this perfection.

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CONSUMPTION FUNCTION: The positive relation between household consumption expenditures and household disposable income that forms one of the key building blocks for Keynesian economics. The consumption function is commonly presented as the consumption line or propensity-to-consume line. The slope of this line is the marginal propensity to consume, which is the proportion of any additional income used for consumption. The consumption function and the marginal propensity to consume play key roles in the multiplier and accelerator concepts. Because saving is the difference between disposable income and consumption, the saving function is a complementary relation to the consumption function.

     See also | Keynesian economics | consumption expenditures | disposable income | consumption line | multiplier | accelerator | saving function | income-expenditure model | marginal propensity to consume | induced consumption | autonomous consumption |


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MARGINAL FACTOR COST, PERFECT COMPETITION

The change in total factor cost resulting from a change in the quantity of factor input employed by a perfectly competitive firm. Marginal factor cost, abbreviated MFC, indicates how total factor cost changes with the employment of one more input. It is found by dividing the change in total factor cost by the change in the quantity of input used. Marginal factor cost is compared with marginal revenue product to identify the profit-maximizing quantity of input to hire.

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