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DISCRETIONARY POLICY: Government policies that involve explicit actions designed to achieve specific goals. A common type of discretionary policy is that designed to stabilize business cycles, reduce unemployment, and lower inflation, through government spending and taxes (fiscal policy) or the money supply (monetary policy). Discretionary policies are also termed activist policies because they involve active decisions by government. A contrast to discretionary policy is automatic stabilizers that help stabilize business cycles without explicit government actions.

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DEMAND SHOCK: A disruption of market equilibrium (that is, a market adjustment) caused by a change in a demand determinant and a shift of the demand curve. A demand shock can take one of two forms--an Demand Increase or a Demand Decrease. An increase in demand is seen as a rightward shift of the demand curve and results in an increase in equilibrium quantity and an increase in equilibrium price. A decrease in demand is a leftward shift of the demand curve and results in a decrease in equilibrium quantity and a decrease in equilibrium price.

     See also | market equilibrium | market adjustment | demand | demand curve | demand price | demand determinant | equilibrium quantity | equilibrium price | equilibrium | income | normal good | inferior good | preferences | other prices | substitute-in-consumption | complement-in-consumption | buyers' expectations | number of buyers | demand decrease | demand increase | supply shock |


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TRANSFER PAYMENTS

Payments made without any corresponding production or expectations of production. Unless otherwise noted (such as business transfer payments), the term transfer payments generally refers to payments by the government sector to the household sector. The three most important transfer payments are for Social Security, unemployment compensation, and welfare. The intent of these transfers payments is to redistribute income, and thus the goods and services that can be purchased with the income. Transfer payments surface as income received but not earned (IRBNE) that is added to national income to derived personal income.

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