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ANTITRUST: The generally process of preventing monopoly practices or breaking up monopolies that restrict competition. The term antitrust derives from the common use of the trust organizational structure in the late 1800s and early 1900s to monopolize markets. The most noted example of the use of a monopoly trust was the Standard Oil Trust, controlled by J. D. Rockefeller and dismantled through the Sherman Act in 1911. The creation of similar monopoly trusts led to the several antitrust laws, including the Sherman Act, the Clayton Act, and the Federal Trade Commission Act.

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FIXED EXCHANGE RATE: An exchange rate that's established at a given level and maintained through government (usually central bank) actions. To fix the exchange rate, a government must be willing to buy and sell currency in the foreign exchange market in whatever amounts are necessary. A fixed exchange rate typically disrupts a nation's balance of trade and balance of payments. If the exchange rate is fixed too low, then a government needs to sell it's currency in the foreign exchange market, and may end up expanding the money supply too much, which then causes inflation. If the exchange rate is fixed too high, then export sales to other countries are curtailed and the economy is likely to slide into a recession.

     See also | exchange rate | currency | money | foreign exchange market | balance of trade | balance of payments | money supply | export | import | floating exchange rate | managed float | J curve |


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INTEREST RATES, AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES DETERMINANT

One of several specific aggregate expenditures determinants assumed constant when the aggregate expenditures line is constructed, and that shifts the aggregate expenditures line when it changes. A decrease in interest rates cause an increase (upward shift) of the aggregate expenditures line. An increase in interest rates cause a decrease (downward shift) of the aggregate expenditures line. Other notable aggregate expenditures determinants include consumer confidence, federal deficit, inflationary expectations, and exchange rates.

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