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June 19, 2021 

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PERFECT COMPETITION AND EFFICIENCY: Perfect competition is the idealized market structure that achieves an efficient allocation of resources. The conditions of perfect competition, including (1) large number of small firms, (2) identical products sold by all firms, (3) freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and (4) perfect knowledge of prices and technology, ensure that perfect competition efficiently allocates resources. This is in fact the purpose of perfect competition: a market structure that illustrates perfection, the best of all possible resource allocation worlds. The real world falls short of this perfection.

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MUTUAL FUND: A company that pools the funds of hundreds or thousands of individuals to purchase corporate stocks, bonds, or other financial assets. The objectives of pooling funds is to reduce transactions costs and provide professional management not otherwise available. The most common types of mutual funds are "open-ended," so called because there are no limits on the number of shares issued. Others are "close-ended" because they issue a fixed number of shares that are then traded around. Mutual funds give consumers the chance to get higher interest rates or returns on the financial investment than available through banks. They also provide the opportunity to participant in financial markets that are typically closed to smaller investors.

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LOGROLLING

The trading of votes to ensure a favorable outcome for two or more separate decisions. Logrolling occurs when each of two people agree to vote for the other's project to ensure that both are passed. A votes for B and B votes for A. Logrolling is commonly used when neither decision is able to obtain the necessary majority of the votes needed for passage on their own accord. Explicit logrolling is when each of two voters agree to cast separate votes for two separate programs. Implicit logrolling is when two separate programs or policies are combined into a single package, which is then subject to a single vote. Logrolling can generate either an efficient or an inefficient allocation of resources, meaning that efficiency is irrelevant to the logrolling process.

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ORANGE REBELOON
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time browsing through a long list of dot com websites wanting to buy either several orange mixing bowls or clothing for your pet dog. Be on the lookout for pencil sharpeners with an attitude.
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The first paper currency used in North America was pasteboard playing cards "temporarily" authorized as money by the colonial governor of French Canada, awaiting "real money" from France.
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