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EXCESS RESERVES: The amount of bank reserves over and above those that the Federal Reserve System requires a bank to keep. Excess reserves are what banks use to make loans. If a bank has more excess reserves, then it can make more loans. This is a key part of the Fed's ability to control the money supply. Using open market operations, the Fed can add to, or subtract from, the excess reserves held by banks. If the Fed, for example, adds to excess reserves, then banks can make more loans. Banks make these loans by adding to their customers' checking account balances. This is of some importance, because checking account balances are an major part of the economy's money supply. In essence, controlling these excess reserves is the Fed's number one method of "printing" money without actually printing money.

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POLICY LAGS: A series of lags between the onset of an economic problem, such as business-cycle contraction, and the full impact of the policy designed to correct the problem, such as expansionary fiscal or monetary policy. Policy lags can take several years and are one of the key arguments against discretionary policies and for reliance on self correction and automatic stabilizers. Policy lags are often divided into inside lags, the time between the shock and the corrective policy, and outside lags, the time between the corrective policy and full impact on the economy.

     See also | economic policies | stabilization policies | inside lag | outside lag | recognition lag | implementation lag | self correction | discretionary policy | automatic stabilizers | business cycle | contraction |


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POLICY LAGS, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: April 21, 2024].


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ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION

Information is not equally available to everyone. Asymmetric information results because efficient information search inevitably stops short of compete information. Some people obtain more benefits from information than others, are willing to incur higher search costs, and thus end up knowing more. Or they incur lower information search costs and have easier access to the information. In a market, sellers tend to have more information about the good than buyers. Asymmetric information gives rise to adverse selection, moral hazard, and the principal-agent problem. These problems can be lessened through signalling and screening.

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