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November 30, 2022 

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ZERO-BASE BUDGET: A method of budgeting expenditures in which each expenditure is justified on its overall merits rather than being based on the budget for the previous year. A zero-base budget is most often proposed (but seldom implemented) for governments. Governments generally establish budget expenditures based on expenditures for the previous year. If, for example, budget expenditures last year were $100 billion, the requested budget for this year might be set at $110 billion. The existing $100 billion is a "given" and only the extra $10 billion is justified. With a zero-base budget, the entire $110 billion is justified.

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REAL INTEREST RATE: The market, or nominal interest rate, after adjusting for inflation. This is the interest rate lenders receive and borrowers pay expressed in real dollars. There two ways to think about the real interest rate, (1) the historical, after-the-fact, interest rate and (2) the desired interest rate lenders and borrowers have in mind when entering into a loan. The first one tells us the purchasing power of any interest payments received or paid. The second way of looking at the real interest rate is based on expectations of the future.

     See also | real | interest rate | price level | inflation | real production | GDP price deflator | purchasing power | real gross domestic product | real wage |


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REAL INTEREST RATE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: November 30, 2022].


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COMPETITIVE MARKET

A market with a large number of buyers and sellers, such that no single buyer or seller is able to influence the price or control any other aspect of the market. That is, none of the participants have significant market control. A competitive market achieves efficiency in the allocation of scarce resources if no other market failures are present.

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