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June 28, 2022 

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EXCESS RESERVES: The amount of bank reserves over and above those that the Federal Reserve System requires a bank to keep. Excess reserves are what banks use to make loans. If a bank has more excess reserves, then it can make more loans. This is a key part of the Fed's ability to control the money supply. Using open market operations, the Fed can add to, or subtract from, the excess reserves held by banks. If the Fed, for example, adds to excess reserves, then banks can make more loans. Banks make these loans by adding to their customers' checking account balances. This is of some importance, because checking account balances are an major part of the economy's money supply. In essence, controlling these excess reserves is the Fed's number one method of "printing" money without actually printing money.

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SUPER MAJORITY RULE: A voting rule in which decisions are made based on a specified fraction of votes greater than 50 percent and less than 100 percent. For example, a super majority of two-thirds is required for Congress to override a legislative veto by the President. A growing number of state and local governments require a super majority approval, usually in the range of 60 to 75 percent, for an increase in taxes. This is one of several voting rules. Others include majority, unanimity, and plurality.

     See also | public choice | majority rule | unanimity rule | plurality rule | voter paradox | principle of the median voter | logrolling | explicit logrolling | implicit logrolling | Tiebout hypothesis | principal-agent problem |


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ECONOMICS OF INFORMATION

The study of the role that information plays in the economy and in the allocation of resources, with special attention paid to efficient information search. Key topics in this area of study and analysis are asymmetric information, moral hazard, adverse selection, signalling, and screening. This study of the economics of information also provides insight into the analysis of risk and uncertainty, which are important to insurance and financial markets.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching the newspaper want ads wanting to buy either a set of serrated steak knives, with durable plastic handles or a pair of blue silicon oven mitts. Be on the lookout for florescent light bulbs that hum folk songs from the sixties.
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Mark Twain said "I wonder how much it would take to buy soap buble if there was only one in the world."
"I do not believe in a fate that will fall on us no matter what we do. I do believe in a fate that will fall on us if we do nothing. "

-- Ronald Reagan, 40th US president

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