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May 11, 2021 

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GRESHAM'S LAW: A principle stating that bad money drives good money out of circulation. For this law to apply an economy clearly needs two types of money, one considered good and the other considered bad. Good and bad money in this context has nothing to do with the propensity to torture small animals or attempts at world domination. Good and bad are based on the official value in exchange versus value in use. Gold and silver, which were both used as money in the U.S. Economy in the 1800s, provides an illustration. Silver took on the role of "bad money" because it was relatively less value in use than gold. As such, people used silver as everyday money and stockpiled, or hoarded, gold. The silver bad money drove the gold good money out of circulation.

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YIELD: The rate of return on a financial asset. In some simple cases, the yield on a financial asset, like commercial paper, corporate bond, or government security, is the asset's interest rate. However, as a more general rule, the yield includes both the interest earned from an asset plus any changes in the asset's price. Suppose, for example, that a $100,000 bond has a 10 percent interest rate, such that the holder receives $10,000 interest per year. If the price of the bond increases over the course of the year from $100,000 to $105,000, then the bond's yield is greater than 10 percent. It includes the $10,000 interest plus the $5,000 bump in the price, giving a yield of 15 percent. Because bonds and similar financial assets often have fixed interest payments, their prices and subsequently yields move up and down as economic conditions change.

     See also | rate of return | interest rate | asset | commercial paper | corporate bond | government security | price | financial markets |


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PERFECT COMPETITION, DEMAND

The demand curve for the output produced by a perfectly competitive firm is perfectly elastic at the going market price. The firm can sell all of the output that it wants at this price because it is a relatively small part of the market. As a price taker, the firm has no ability to charge a higher price and no reason to charge a lower one. The market price facing a perfectly competitive firm is also average revenue and, most important, marginal revenue.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time going from convenience store to convenience store hoping to buy either a pair of gray heavy duty boot socks or a 50-foot blue garden hose. Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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This isn't me! What am I?

Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland, was the pseudonym of Charles Dodgson, an accomplished mathematician and economist.
"Everyone is bound to bear patiently the results of his own example. "

-- Phaedrus, Philosopher

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