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December 7, 2022 

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NEAR-PUBLIC GOOD: A good that's easy to keep nonpayers from consuming, but use of the good by one person doesn't prevent use by others. The trick with a near-public good is that it's easy to keep people away, and thus you can charge them a price for consuming, but there's no real good reason to do so. From an efficiency view, the more people who consume a near-public good, the better off society. This mixture of nearly unlimited benefits and the ability to charge a price means that some near-public goods are sold through markets and others are provided by government. For efficiency's sake, none should be sold through markets.

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ZERO-SUM GAME: A situation in which a fixed amount is divided up among the winners and losers. In a zero-sum game the wins equal the losses. Many stock market, or financial market, exchanges are zero-sum. One person buys low and sells high, while another buys high and sells low. The wealth in such transactions are merely transferred from one person to another. "Productive" market transactions, in contrast, are not zero-sum. The act of producing goods and services from resources that are consumed to satisfy wants and needs results in a net gain to society.

     See also | game theory | stock market | financial market | exchange | production | consumption | market |


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HORIZONTAL MERGER

The consolidation of two or more separately-owned businesses, operating in the same industry and producing competing products, into a single firm. This is one of three types of mergers. The other two are vertical merger--two firms in different stages of the production of one good--and conglomerate merger--two firms in separate, unrelated industries.

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ORANGE REBELOON
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway hoping to buy either storage boxes for your income tax returns or an AC adapter for your CD player. Be on the lookout for rusty deck screws.
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It's estimated that the U.S. economy has about $20 million of counterfeit currency in circulation, less than 0.001 perecent of the total legal currency.
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