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January 22, 2022 

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LONG-RUN AVERAGE COST CURVE: A curve depicting the per unit cost of producing a good or service in the long run when all inputs are variable. The long-run average cost curve (usually abbreviated LRAC) can be derived in two ways. On is to plot long-run average cost, which is, long-run total cost divided by the quantity of output produced. at different output levels. The more common method, however, is as an envelope of an infinite number of short-run average total cost curves. Such an envelope is base on identifying the point on each short-run average total cost curve that provides the lowest possible average cost for each quantity of output. The long-run average cost curve is U-shaped, reflecting economies of scale (or increasing returns to scale) when negatively-sloped and diseconomies of scale (or decreasing returns to scale) when positively sloped. The minimum point (or range) on the LRAC curve is the minimum efficient scale.

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GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES:

Transfer payments from the government sector to the business sector that do not involve current production. This is one component of the official entry government subsidies less current surplus of government enterprises found in the National Income and Product Accounts maintained by the Bureau of Economic Analysis that separates national income (the resource cost of production) and gross (and net) domestic product (the market value of production).
Much like government makes transfers to the household sector to assist (presumably needy) individuals, government makes transfers to the business sector to assist (presumably needy) firms. Household transfer payments include welfare to the poor, unemployment compensation to the unemployed, and Social Security payments to the elderly and disabled. Business transfer payments (occasionally referred to as corporate welfare) include direct payments or tax deductions to business firms for a variety of reasons.
  • Specific Activity: Firms are often given subsidies to encourage particular actions, such as training employees, reducing pollution, implementing specific production techniques, or developing new technologies. Farmers receive federal subsidies to reduce the problems caused by unstable agricultural markets.

  • Local Growth: State and local governments have a long history of inducing firms that employ a number of workers to locate in their areas through generous subsidies.

  • Public Utilities: Privately-owned public utilities or quasi-public transportation systems are often subsidized by the government because they provide valuable production that cannot be profitably exchanged through markets.

  • Bankrupt Firms: On occasion, a nationally prominent firm on the verge of bankruptcy is subsidized to help it through difficult times.

  • Friends of Government: And more than a few special "breaks" have been inserted into tax laws by members of Congress on behalf of a particular firm that may or may not be the direct result of a hefty campaign contribution.
From a national income perspective, government subsidies are added to the pool of revenue that the business sector has available for making factor payments (which also makes it part of national income). But because the business sector does NOT receive this revenue as payment for producing goods, it is not part of gross domestic product.

<= GOVERNMENT SECTORGOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES LESS CURRENT SURPLUS OF GOVERNMENT ENTERPRISES =>


Recommended Citation:

GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: January 22, 2022].


Check Out These Related Terms...

     | national income and gross domestic product | national income and net domestic product | government subsidies less current surplus of government enterprises | current surplus of government enterprises | government enterprises | capital consumption adjustment | indirect business taxes | net foreign factor income | business transfer payments | statistical discrepancy |


Or For A Little Background...

     | national income | gross domestic product | gross domestic product, income | production | product markets | National Income and Product Accounts | Bureau of Economic Analysis | National Bureau of Economic Research |


And For Further Study...

     | factor payments | circular flow | business cycles | gross domestic product, expenditures | gross domestic product, ins and outs | gross domestic product, welfare | gross national product | real gross domestic product | government functions | net domestic product | personal income | disposable income | gross domestic income |


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