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March 23, 2019 

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REALISM OF PERFECT COMPETITION: Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that does NOT exist in the real world. While some real world industries might come relatively close to a one or two of the four key characteristics of perfect competition, none matches all four sufficiently that we can declare a perfectly competitively industry. Some industries come close on the large number of small firms and the identical product characteristics. A few industries have relatively good, although not perfect, information about prices and technology. However, almost all industries fall far short of the perfect mobility characteristics.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Basics
  • Opportunity Cost
  • Cost Times Two
  • Profit Times Three
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Three Totals
  • Fixed And Variable
  • A Table Of Totals
  • Total Curves
  • TP And TVC
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Four More Measures
  • Three Averages
  • A Table Of Averages
  • Average Curves
  • One Marginal
  • A Marginal Table
  • The Marginal Curve
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Long-Run Cost
  • Doing The Long Run
  • A Choice Of Plants
  • Planning Curve
  • Scale Economies
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Previewing Supply
  • Production Stages
  • Marginal Cost
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Cost

    • The first unit of this lesson, The Basics, begins this our study with a review of the opportunity cost notion and how it relates to business activity.
    • In the second unit, Three Totals, we take a look at the three total cost measures, including total cost, total variable cost, and total fixed cost.
    • The third unit, Four More Measures, then presents four additional cost measures -- average total cost, average variable cost, average fixed cost, and marginal cost.
    • In the fourth unit, Long-Run Cost, we examine how scale economies and diseconomies affect cost in the long run.
    • The fifth and final unit, Previewing Supply, then closes this lesson by previewing the importance of cost, especially marginal cost, to the supply decision by a firm.

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    TAX EQUITY

    The notion that taxes are imposed on society in a fair and equitable way. The two standards of fairness and equity used to evaluate taxes are the benefit principle -- those who benefit from government pay the taxes, and the ability-to-pay principle -- those with the most income pay the taxes. The ability-to-pay principle gives rise to two additional notions of fairness -- horizontal equity (those with equal incomes pay equal taxes) and vertical equity (those with different incomes pay different taxes).

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    APLS

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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time waiting for visits from door-to-door solicitors hoping to buy either a New York Yankees baseball cap or a solid oak entertainment center. Be on the lookout for poorly written technical manuals.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    General Electric is the only stock from the original 1896 Dow Jones Industrial Average remaining in the current index.
    "It is not the straining for great things that is most effective; it is the doing of the little things, the common duties, a little better and better."

    -- Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Writer

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    Discounted Rate of Return
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