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LONG-RUN EQUILIBRIUM, MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION: Relative freedom of entry and exit ensures that, in the long run, every firm in a monopolistically competitive industry earns exactly a normal profit, receiving neither an economic profit, nor incurring an economic loss. This result is achieved because entry and exit affects the market supply curve, which affects the overall market price, each firm's demand curve, and the range or prices it can charge. Each firm's demand curve adjusts until the profit-maximizing price is exactly equal to average total cost (both short run and long run).

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AD: The abbreviation for aggregate demand, which is the total (or aggregate) real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers would willing and able to make at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand (AD) is one half of the aggregate market analysis; the other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand, relates the economy's price level, measured by the GDP price deflator, and aggregate expenditures on domestic production, measured by real gross domestic product. The aggregate expenditures are consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports made by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign).

     See also | economy | aggregate expenditures | domestic | aggregate market analysis | price level | real production | aggregate supply | GDP price deflator | gross domestic product | real gross domestic product | consumption expenditures | investment expenditures | government purchases | net exports | household sector | business sector | government sector | foreign sector | market demand | interest-rate effect | real-balance effect | net-export effect | income effect | substitution effect |


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FIXED INPUT

An input whose quantity cannot be changed in the time period under consideration. The relevant time period is usually termed the short run. The most common example of a fixed input is capital. The alternative to fixed input is variable input. A fixed input, such as capital, provides the "capacity" constraint for the short-run production of a firm. A variable input, such as labor, provides the means of changing short-run production. As larger quantities of a variable input are added to a fixed input, the variable input becomes less productive, which is the law of diminishing marginal returns.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a flea market wanting to buy either a how-to book on building remote controlled airplanes or an extra large beach blanket. Be on the lookout for spoiled cheese hiding under your bed hatching conspiracies against humanity.
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Parker Brothers, the folks who produce the Monopoly board game, prints more Monopoly money each year than real currency printed by the U.S. government.
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