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BANK RESERVES: The "money" that banks use to conduct day-to-day business, including cashing checks, satisfying customers's withdrawals, and clearing checks between accounts at different banks. The "money" in question includes vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits. Specifically, vault cash is the paper money and coins that a bank keeps on the bank premises (both in the vault and in teller drawers), which is used to "cash" checks and otherwise provide the funds that customers withdraw. Federal Reserve deposits are accounts that banks keep with the Federal Reserve System, which are used to process, in a systematic, centralized fashion, the millions of checks written each day by customers of one bank that are deposited by customers of another bank. Using these deposits, the Fed acts as a central clearing house for checks, being able to simultaneously debit the account of one bank and credit the account of another. More on the importance of bank reserves can be found under fractional-reserve banking.

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AD: The abbreviation for aggregate demand, which is the total (or aggregate) real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers would willing and able to make at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand (AD) is one half of the aggregate market analysis; the other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand, relates the economy's price level, measured by the GDP price deflator, and aggregate expenditures on domestic production, measured by real gross domestic product. The aggregate expenditures are consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports made by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign).

     See also | economy | aggregate expenditures | domestic | aggregate market analysis | price level | real production | aggregate supply | GDP price deflator | gross domestic product | real gross domestic product | consumption expenditures | investment expenditures | government purchases | net exports | household sector | business sector | government sector | foreign sector | market demand | interest-rate effect | real-balance effect | net-export effect | income effect | substitution effect |


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INCOME EFFECT

The change in quantity demanded that results because a change in the demand price of a good affects real income (that is, the purchasing power of income) even though nominal income remains the same. This is one of two reasons, or effects, underlying the law of demand and the negative slope of the market demand curve. The other is the substitution effect.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at an auction wanting to buy either a cell phone case or a pair of designer sunglasses. Be on the lookout for strangers with large satchels of used undergarments.
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In the Middle Ages, pepper was used for bartering, and it was often more valuable and stable in value than gold.
"It is not fair to ask of others what you are unwilling to do yourself. "

-- Eleanor Roosevelt, diplomat, activist

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