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PLURALITY RULE: A voting rule in which decisions are made based on a plurality of the votes cast. A plurality is defined as the most votes obtained when more than two candidates or options exist, but none receives a majority. If, for example, two of three candidates running for office receive 33 percent of the vote, then the third candidate with 34 percent receives the plurality. Presidential primary elections, which can have up to a dozen candidates, are commonly won with a plurality of the votes. This is one of several voting rules. Others include majority, super majority, and unanimity.

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AD CURVE: The aggregate demand curve, which is a graphical representation of the relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level, holding all ceteris paribus aggregate demand determinants constant. The aggregate demand, or AD, curve is one side of the graphical presentation of the aggregate market. The other side is occupied by the aggregate supply curve (which is actually two curves, the long-run aggregate supply curve and the short-run aggregate supply curve). The negative slope of the aggregate demand curve captures the inverse relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level. This negative slope is attributable to the interest-rate effect, real-balance effect, and net-export effect.

     See also | aggregate demand | aggregate market | aggregate supply curve | aggregate expenditures | real production | price level | ceteris paribus | aggregate demand determinants | interest-rate effect | real-balance effect | net-export effect |


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PERFECT COMPETITION, LONG-RUN EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS

The long-run equilibrium of a perfectly competitive industry generates six specific equilibrium conditions, including: (1) economic efficiency (P = MC), (2) profit maximization (MR = MC), (3) perfect competition (MR = AR = P), (4) breakeven output (P = AR = ATC), (5) minimum production cost (MC = ATC), and (6) minimum efficient scale (MC = ATC = LRAC = LRMC).

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