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May 26, 2022 

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PERFECT COMPETITION AND EFFICIENCY: Perfect competition is the idealized market structure that achieves an efficient allocation of resources. The conditions of perfect competition, including (1) large number of small firms, (2) identical products sold by all firms, (3) freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and (4) perfect knowledge of prices and technology, ensure that perfect competition efficiently allocates resources. This is in fact the purpose of perfect competition: a market structure that illustrates perfection, the best of all possible resource allocation worlds. The real world falls short of this perfection.

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LORENZ CURVE: In general, a diagram illustrating the degree of inequality and concentration for a group. This is accomplished by plotting the cumulative percentage of a total amount obtained by cumulative percentages of the group. A common use of the Lorenz curve is the distribution of income, in which the cumulative percentage of income is measured on the vertical axis and the cumulative percentage of the population is measured on the horizontal axis. Perfect equality is indicated by a 45-degree line (that is, 10% of the population has 10% of the income, 20% of the population has 20% of the income, etc.). The actual Lorenz curve inevitably lies below the 45-degree line. The extent that the Lorenz curve differs from the 45-degree line indicates the extent of inequality.

     See also | income distribution | wealth distribution | Gini index | equity | third rule of inequality | distribution standards |


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INJECTIONS-LEAKAGES MODEL

A macroeconomic model that balances non-consumption expenditures on production (injections) and non-consumption uses of income (leakages) that is used to identify the equilibrium level of, and analyze disruptions to, aggregate production and income. The injections-leakages model is based on the principles of Keynesian economics and provides an alternative to the standard aggregate expenditures (Keynesian cross) analysis. The three injections included in the model are investment expenditures, government purchases, and exports. The three leakages included in the model are saving, taxes, and imports. Three variations are the two-sector injections-leakages model (or saving-investment model), three-sector injections-leakages model, and four-sector injections-leakages model.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time going from convenience store to convenience store looking to buy either a how-to book on surfing the Internet or a computer that can play music and burn CDs. Be on the lookout for slow moving vehicles with darkened windows.
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The first U.S. fire insurance company was established by Benjamin Franklin in 1752 in Philadelphia.
"Try not to become a man of success, but rather try to become a man of value. "

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