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PARETO EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if one person can not be made better off without making someone else worse off. Named after Vilfredo Pareto, this criterion is the guiding theoretical notion of efficiency used in the study of economics, especially welfare economics. Pareto efficiency is generally not attained if some resources are idle or unemployed. By engaging idle resources in production, some people can have more production without reducing that available to others. A problem with Pareto efficiency, however, is that it is based on the existing distribution of income and wealth. This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Kaldor-Hicks efficiency.

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COMPLEMENT: Two goods that "go together," either in consumption or production. In terms of demand, a complement-in-consumption is one of two goods that are consumed together such that an increase in the price of one good leads to a decrease in demand and a leftward shift in the demand curve for the other good. If the demand of good 1 decreases as the price of good 2 increases, the goods are complements-in-consumption. In terms of supply, a complement-in-production is one of two goods that are produced jointly using the same resources, such that an increase in the price of one good leads to an increase in supply and a rightward shift in the supply curve for the other good. If the supply of good 1 increases as the price of good 2 increases, the goods are complements-in-production.

     See also | demand | complement-in-consumption | supply | complement-in-production | demand curve | supply curve | consumption | production | demand shock | supply shock | demand determinants | supply determinants |


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COMPLEMENT-IN-PRODUCTION

One of two (or more) goods that are simultaneously produced using a given resource. A complement-in-production is one of two alternatives falling within the other prices determinant of supply. The other is a substitute-in-production. An increase in the price of one complement good causes an increase in supply for the other.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at the confiscated property police auction wanting to buy either clothing for your pet dog or an ink cartridge for your printer. Be on the lookout for empty parking spaces that appear to be near the entrance to a store.
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Three-forths of the gold mined each year is used to manufacture jewelry.
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