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April 23, 2024 

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BLACK MARKET: An illegal market in which the price of the goods sold is above a legally set maximum price. A black market invariable results whenever the government imposes a price ceiling on a good. A common example of a price ceiling is rent controls on apartments in many large cities. Although landlords cannot "legally" rent apartments for more than the specified maximum, they often do so "illegally" by charging "finders fees" and "tenant association dues." In so doing, they have entered into the realm of black markets.

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LONG-RUN AVERAGE COST CURVE: A curve depicting the per unit cost of producing a good or service in the long run when all inputs are variable. The long-run average cost curve (usually abbreviated LRAC) can be derived in two ways. On is to plot long-run average cost, which is, long-run total cost divided by the quantity of output produced. at different output levels. The more common method, however, is as an envelope of an infinite number of short-run average total cost curves. Such an envelope is base on identifying the point on each short-run average total cost curve that provides the lowest possible average cost for each quantity of output. The long-run average cost curve is U-shaped, reflecting economies of scale (or increasing returns to scale) when negatively-sloped and diseconomies of scale (or decreasing returns to scale) when positively sloped. The minimum point (or range) on the LRAC curve is the minimum efficient scale.

     See also | long-run average cost | average cost | average total cost | variable input | long run | quantity | economies of scale | increasing returns to scale | diseconomies of scale | decreasing returns to scale | minimum efficient scale |


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AGGREGATE SUPPLY SHIFTS

Changes in the aggregate supply determinants shift both the short-run aggregate supply curve and the long-run aggregate supply curve. The mechanism is comparable to that for market supply determinants and market supply. There are two options--an increase in aggregate supply and a decrease in aggregate supply. An increase in resource quantity or quality or a decrease in resource price shifts one or both of the aggregate supply curves to right. A decrease in resource quantity or quality or an increase in resource price shifts one or both of the aggregate supply curves to left.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time visiting every yard sale in a 30-mile radius wanting to buy either an AC adapter that won't fry your computer or a case for your designer sunglasses. Be on the lookout for crowded shopping malls.
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In the Middle Ages, pepper was used for bartering, and it was often more valuable and stable in value than gold.
"You have to find something that you love enough to be able to take risks, jump over the hurdles and break through the brick walls that are always going to be placed in front of you. If you don't have that kind of feeling for what it is you're doing, you'll stop at the first giant hurdle. "

-- George Lucas

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