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December 7, 2022 

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C: The standard abbreviation for consumption expenditures by the household sector, especially when used in the study of macroeconomics. This abbreviation is most often seen in the consumption function, specified as C = a + bY, where Y stands for national income. It is also used for the aggregate expenditure equation, AE = C + I + G + (X - M), where I, G, and (X - M) represent expenditures by the other three macroeconomic sectors, business, government, and foreign.

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MARGINAL COST AND MARGINAL PRODUCT: Because variable cost is largely associated with the cost of employing a variable input in the short run, it's possible to identify a connection between the marginal cost curve and the marginal product curve. In particular, the quantity of output in which marginal cost is at a minimum, is the same quantity of output produced by the variable input when the marginal product of the variable input is at a maximum. In addition, over the range of production in which the variable input experiences increasing marginal returns and marginal product increases, the marginal cost curve declines. And over the range of production in which the variable input experiences decreasing marginal returns brought on by the law of diminishing marginal returns and marginal product increases, the marginal cost curve is rising.

     See also | marginal cost | marginal product | law of diminishing marginal returns | variable input | variable cost | fixed input | fixed cost | marginal cost curve | marginal product curve |


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MARGINAL COST AND MARGINAL PRODUCT, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: December 7, 2022].


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MARKET FAILURES

Imperfections in the exchange process between buyers and sellers that prevent markets from efficiently allocating scarce resources. Market failures come in four varieties -- public goods, market control, externalities, and imperfect information. Market efficiency is achieved if the value of goods produced is equal to the value of foregone production. Markets fail when this efficiency condition is not achieved. Such failures can only be corrected by government intervention.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time surfing the Internet looking to buy either a T-shirt commemorating the second moon landing or a coffee cup commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki. Be on the lookout for the happiest person in the room.
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Mark Twain said "I wonder how much it would take to buy soap buble if there was only one in the world."
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