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June 15, 2024 

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OLIGOPOLY AND MONOPOLY: Oligopoly and monopoly have some similarities, both tend to be relatively large and possess significant market control, but also have a few important differences, oligopoly market has more than one firm. The dividing line between oligopoly and monopoly, however, can be blurred due to the closeness of substitutes and the inclination of oligopoly firms to collude.

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MARGINAL COST CURVE: A curve that graphically represents the relation between marginal cost incurred by a firm in the short-run product of a good or service and the quantity of output produced. This curve is constructed to capture the relation between marginal cost and the level of output, holding other variables, like technology and resource prices, constant. The marginal cost curve is U-shaped. Marginal cost is relatively high at small quantities of output, then as production increases, declines, reaches a minimum value, then rises. This shape of the marginal cost curve is directly attributable to increasing, then decreasing marginal returns (and the law of diminishing marginal returns).

     See also | marginal cost | curve | quantity | law of diminishing marginal returns | technology | resource prices | increasing marginal returns | decreasing marginal returns | U-shaped cost curves | average total cost curve | average variable cost curve | average fixed cost curve | total cost curve |


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MARGINAL PROPENSITY FOR GOVERNMENT PURCHASES

The change in government purchases induced by a change in income or production (national income or gross domestic product). The marginal propensity for government purchases (abbreviated MPG) is another term for the slope of the government purchases line and is calculated as the change in government purchases divided by the change in income or production. The MPG plays a role in Keynesian economics. It augments the slope of the aggregate expenditures line and is part of the multiplier process. A related marginal measure is the marginal propensity to consume.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store seeking to buy either a rechargeable battery for your computer or shoe laces for your snow boots. Be on the lookout for crowded shopping malls.
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