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November 26, 2021 

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KALDOR-HICKS IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if the willingness to pay of those benefiting exceed the willingness to accept of those harmed. In other words, if those gains exceed those losses, or the benefits exceed the costs, then social welfare is improved and undertaking the action provides a net benefit to society. In other words, the winners can, in principle, compensate the losers for their loss, and still come out ahead. The actual compensation, however, is required. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Pareto improvement.

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OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL: Ownership means that you have legal "title" to a resource, good, or commodity. Control means that you have the ability to determine how a resource, good, or commodity is used. While it would seem as though these two always go together, such is not the case. People generally have ownership and control over their labor and personal property (clothing, furniture, canned goods, etc.). But in some circumstances ownership is absent of control and control exists without ownership.

     See also | resources | goods | corporate stock | information | asset | wealth | principal-agent problem | taxes | circular flow |


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OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2021. [Accessed: November 26, 2021].


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MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION, EFFICIENCY

A monopolistically competitive firm generally produces less output and charges a higher price than would be the case for a perfectly competitive firm. In particular, the price charged by a monopolistically competitive firm is higher than the marginal cost of production, which violates the efficiency condition that price equals marginal cost. A monopolistically competitive firm is inefficient because it has market control and faces a negatively-sloped demand curve.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale seeking to buy either a flower arrangement in a coffee cup for your father or a how-to book on meeting people. Be on the lookout for vindictive digital clocks with revenge on their minds.
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More money is spent on gardening than on any other hobby.
"There is more to life than increasing its speed. "

-- Mohandas Gandhi, activist

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Brookings Papers on Economic Activity
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