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December 7, 2021 

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ALTERNATIVE UNEMPLOYMENT RATES: The official unemployment rate estimated and reported monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) using data from Current Population Survey is one of six alternative measures of unemployment tracked by the BLS, officially labeled U1-U6. The "official" unemployment rate is U3. The other five measures seek to document different ways in which labor can be underutilized, including unemployment duration, job losers, discouraged workers, marginally-attached workers, and part-time workers.

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PERFECT COMPETITION AND EFFICIENCY: Perfect competition is the idealized market structure that achieves an efficient allocation of resources. The conditions of perfect competition, including (1) large number of small firms, (2) identical products sold by all firms, (3) freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and (4) perfect knowledge of prices and technology, ensure that perfect competition efficiently allocates resources. This is in fact the purpose of perfect competition: a market structure that illustrates perfection, the best of all possible resource allocation worlds. The real world falls short of this perfection.

     See also | perfect competition | efficiency | market structure | resource allocation | imperfect competition | monopoly | oligopoly | monopolistic competition |


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PERFECT COMPETITION AND EFFICIENCY, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2021. [Accessed: December 7, 2021].


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SHUTDOWN RULE

A rule stating that a firm minimizes economic loss by producing no output in the short run if price is less than average variable cost. This is one of three short-run production alternatives facing a firm. The other two are profit maximization (if price exceeds average total cost) and loss minimization (if price is less than average total cost but greater than average variable cost).

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BROWN PRAGMATOX
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching the shopping channel trying to buy either a pair of gray heavy duty boot socks or a 50-foot blue garden hose. Be on the lookout for empty parking spaces that appear to be near the entrance to a store.
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A U.S. dime has 118 groves around its edge, one fewer than a U.S. quarter.
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-- Voltaire, philosopher

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