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August 9, 2022 

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ANTITRUST: The generally process of preventing monopoly practices or breaking up monopolies that restrict competition. The term antitrust derives from the common use of the trust organizational structure in the late 1800s and early 1900s to monopolize markets. The most noted example of the use of a monopoly trust was the Standard Oil Trust, controlled by J. D. Rockefeller and dismantled through the Sherman Act in 1911. The creation of similar monopoly trusts led to the several antitrust laws, including the Sherman Act, the Clayton Act, and the Federal Trade Commission Act.

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IMPERFECT COMPETITION: Any markets or industries that do not match the criteria for perfect competition. The key characteristics of perfect competition are: (1) a large number of small firms, (2) identical products sold by all firms, (3) freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and (4) perfect knowledge of prices and technology. These four characteristics are essentially impossible to match in the real world.

     See also | market | market structure | perfect competition | monopoly | monopolistic competition | oligopoly | fifth rule of imperfection | fourth rule of competition | market control | demand curve | profit maximization | short-run production | marginal cost |


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KINKED-DEMAND CURVE ANALYSIS

An analysis using the kinked-demand curve to explain rigid prices often found with oligopoly. The kinked-demand curve contains two distinct segments--one for higher prices that is more elastic and one for lower prices that is less elastic. Key to this analysis is that the corresponding marginal revenue curve contains three segments--one associated with the more elastic segment, one associated with the less elastic segment, and one associated with the kink. A profit-maximizing firm can then equate marginal cost to a wide range of marginal revenue values along the vertical segment of the marginal revenue curve. This suggests that marginal cost must change significantly before an oligopolistic firm is inclined to change price.

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